HIV or human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that is sexually transmitted and affects the body's ability to fight infections. It is a lifelong condition that progresses to a more severe form known as AIDS in the long run.

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What antibiotics are recommended for chlamydia in an HIV positive?

Query: Hi doctor, I tested positive for chlamydia IgA IgG. Negative IgM. I am HIV positive but undetectable viral load and CD4 724. Recommended antibiotic? Thanks.  Read Full »

Dr. Sushil Kakkar

Answer: Hello, Welcome to A high title of IgA and IgG antibodies to chlamydia generally indicates active infection but it is an auxiliary test and should also be supplemented by a more specific nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) on a urine sample. A NAAT test specifically detects chlamydi...  Read Full »

I touched a used needle.Is there any chance of me getting HIV infection?

Query: Hello doctor, I work for a company where there is one person who is a diabetic. He uses regular insulin injections. Well, I was not paying attention when I picked up the trash can because it fell over, and I touched a used needle. I know I did not get pricked because it did not pierce my skin. I als...  Read Full »

Dr. Sushil Kakkar

Answer: Hi, Welcome to The risk of infection from needlestick injuries depends on: The factors that influence exposure to a greater volume of blood (for example: visible blood on the device, needle which has been placed directly into an artery or a vein of an HIV positive person). Viral...  Read Full »

After having unprotected intercourse with a CSW seven months ago, I am experiencing swollen lymph nodes in my neck and a sore throat. Why?

Query: Hello doctor, I had unprotected exposure 7 months ago with a commercial sex worker, and I do not know her HIV status. Since then, I have had multiple fourth-generation tests and a PCR test for HIV. My fourth-generation HIV test has been negative till now. But I have had a swollen lymph node in my ne...  Read Full »

Dr. Sushil Kakkar

Answer: Hello, Welcome to Your tests for sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV) are conclusive. A 4th generation HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) screening test is considered conclusive at six weeks from risk exposure. Most other STDs would also be detectable by laboratory tests by s...  Read Full »

I have a red lump on my thigh near the anus. Can I be infected with HIV?

Query: Hello doctor, I had sex with a CSW last night. I only had a receiving unprotected sex for one to two minutes. We did not use any protection. We did not do anything other than that. I did not ejaculate in her mouth. I do not know about her HIV status. I am scared if there are any concerns about HIV o...  Read Full »

Dr. Sushil Kakkar

Answer: Hello, Welcome to The red sore is just a skin crack. I suggest you use triple antibiotic Neosporin (Bacitracin, Neomycin, and Polymyxin B) ointment twice daily. Unprotected sex is never safe though oral sex is still safer as compared to unprotected vaginal or anal sex. Nevertheless...  Read Full »

Can unprotected oral sex lead to HIV?

Query: Hello doctor, I had unprotected oral sex with a CSW. I ejaculated in her mouth. She ran quickly to spit. I do not know if she was HIV positive or not. Should I be worried about my health? Thank you.  Read Full »

Dr. Sushil Kakkar

Answer: Hello, Welcome to Unprotected receptive oral sex is safer than unprotected vaginal or anal sex but not entirely safe. There is a negligible risk of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and other STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) like herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Th...  Read Full »

I developed cold after having protected sex. Do I have HIV?

Query: Hello doctor, About six weeks ago, I had protected sex with a male. About two weeks later, I developed a cold, which got better. Now, I have been feeling random zings (not really painful) in my armpit. I have also got five “pimples” in a cluster on my back. Do I need to be worried about HIV?  Read Full »

Dr. Sushil Kakkar

Answer: Hello, Welcome to Protected sex is safe and there is no risk of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). Having cold or flu is not a specific symptom or sign of HIV. Cold is otherwise very common in the general population and is not a reason to suspect HIV. For pimples, I would suggest y...  Read Full »

Is the CIMA test a confirmatory test for HIV?

Query: Hello doctor,I had unprotected vaginal sex with an unknown girl for two minutes. I have taken the following tests: ECLIA third generation after 17 days of exposure, ECLIA third generation after 30 days of exposure, RNA by PCR after 31 days of exposure, TRI-DOT test after 50 days of exposure, and CMI...  Read Full »

Dr. Sushil Kakkar

Answer: Hello, Welcome to A 12-week screening test for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) antibodies is considered conclusive, and a CMIA (chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay) fourth generation test at 59 days of exposure with a window period of two to three weeks is very reliable, but...  Read Full »

How long do the HIV antibodies remain in the body post exposure?

Query: Hello doctor,I have a general query. I would like to know say a person has HIV and if he does not know about it. He then acquires AIDS. So, even after having AIDS, will there be HIV antibodies in his blood? If he goes for an HIV antibody test after acquiring AIDS, will the antibody test result will ...  Read Full »

Dr. Sushil Kakkar

Answer: Hello, Welcome to Antibodies against HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) once formed, stay forever. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is an advanced stage of HIV infection when the patient shows signs of immunodeficiency like opportunistic infections, malignancies, etc. Anti...  Read Full »

How to prevent HIV?

Query: Hello doctor, What are the precautions that need to be taken to avoid HIV and AIDS?  Read Full »

Dr. Sushil Kakkar

Answer: Hello, Welcome to In adults, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is acquired mainly through either unprotected sex with an HIV-infected individual or through sharing of needles as in injection drug abusers (IDUs) and accidentally through needle-stick injury in a healthcare profession...  Read Full »

Does an increased WBC count after sexual intercourse suggest HIV infection?

Query: Hello doctor, I am a 28 year old male. I had an exposure with an unknown girl 43 days ago and the condom tore when my penis was still inside her vagina. The next morning, I saw a red mark on the tip of my penis. It disappeared in three days. I do not know the HIV status of the girl. I had done HIV 1...  Read Full »

Dr. Sushil Kakkar

Answer: Hello, Welcome to I have noted your concern. At one month, this test is 95 % sensitive. So, it is fairly accurate at this stage. However, since a condom break amounts to unprotected sex (high-risk exposure), ideally you should follow it up by a retest at 12 weeks for an HIV antibody whi...  Read Full »

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