Stroke volume depends upon many factors. The faster the heart rate lowers the stroke volume, the more force of contraction more the stroke volume. More preload, more stroke volume. More afterload less the stroke volume. No diurnal variation in stroke volume. I hope I have cleared your doubts. Thank you.
Thank you for the reply, doctor. Can it change at night, after food, and standing?
Yes, it can change with any action that changes the above four, like heart rate, a force of contraction, preload, and afterload. Standing for a long duration increases heart rate, food intake may increase heart rate. At night during rest, the heart rate decreases, so it affects stroke volume. Stroke volume multiplied by heart rate is equal to cardiac output. Cardiac output changes during rest, exercise, food intake, anxiety, and standing from a lying position. Thank you.
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