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Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Hematologic Disorders

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Mesenchymal stem cell therapy is a novel therapeutic with promising outcomes in dealing with hematologic disorders. Read to know more about it.

Medically reviewed by

Dr. Abdul Aziz Khan

Published At May 15, 2024
Reviewed AtMay 16, 2024

What Are Hematologic Disorders?

Hematologic disorders are a specific genre of ailments that crop up due to derangements in the qualitative and quantitative aspects of blood profile. Apart from the blood cells, the bodily organs that are concerned with the blood cell genesis are implicated in hematologic disorders. Hematologic disorders are, at times, quoted under the denomination of blood disorders.

Hematologic disorders encompass both malignant (with the ability to disseminate) as well as benign (localized and confined) ailments. In hematologic disorders, any of the blood elements’ counts might turn out to be anomalous. It can be either in excess or depleted. The anomaly could be in their count or the way the blood cells function. Bone marrow, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen are the organs that are implicated with the genesis and functions of blood cells.

The hematologic disorders could range from anemia (depleted red blood cell count), which marks the peak incidence among hematologic disorders, to leukemia (blood cancer). Each of the hematologic disorders brings forth specific manifestations, and so do the causative factors, which exhibit variances for each of these conditions.

Nutritional deficiency of critical elements (for example., iron), aberrations in the genetic framework (gene mutations), familial inclination, and drug exposure are a few factors that could invoke hematologic diseases. The manifestations that each hematologic disorder could bring out are largely guided by the blood cell type that gets impaired or deranged.

What Is Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy?

Mesenchymal stem cells are a specific subset of adult stem cells. Stem cells are those cells that can propagate into different cell breeds as per the body's requirements. In response to the body signals, these stem cells transfigure into the designated and specialized cells that are capable of performing the intended functions of that particular cell type. Adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells are two discrete listings of stem cells.

Embryonic stem cells, as the name implies, are yielded from the embryonic staged baby (baby in the early pregnancy period - three to five days post fertilization). Its medical applicability is minimal owing to legal complications. Human beings house adult stem cells within specific sites within their body, particularly bone marrow and liver. Mesenchymal stem cells are one among the subtypes of adult stem cells. This group of adult stem cells could be extracted from the bone marrow, menstrual blood, and fat tissues. It has promising and appreciable medical value in regenerative medicine.

These mesenchymal cells, as such, are unspecialized. However, they hold the potency to turn up into specific blood cells upon prompt signaling, which is quoted as multipotency. This trait of mesenchymal stem cells contributes to and heightens its scope as therapeutics in tackling various ailments or comorbid conditions. The medical therapy in which mesenchymal stem cells are being employed is called mesenchymal stem cell therapy.

In addition, mesenchymal cells express the propensity to drift from their location of origin to the other bodily areas that are in want of repair and recovery. At the intended site, these mesenchymal stem cells transfigure into functionally active cells that could function like and replace the injured cells at a specific point. These mesenchymal stem cells expressed the potency to modulate and tune the immune system by collaborating with critical immune cells. Various therapeutic interventions utilizing mesenchymal stem cells are broadly labeled as mesenchymal stem cell therapy.

How Does Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy Aid in Hematologic Disorders?

Mesenchymal stem cell therapy is gaining acceptance in the curative perspectives of hematologic disorders. Different attributes that the mesenchymal stem cells bring forth are being utilized in tackling discrete hematologic ailments.

1. Reinstitute the Healthy Blood Profile: The derangements in the blood profile could be reinstated and brought back to the so-called healthy state by instituting mesenchymal stem cell therapy. Hematologic ailments inflicted by the downgrading of a specific subset of blood cells could be tackled with mesenchymal stem cell therapy.

2. Antifibrotic Traits: Certain hematologic ailments may be instigated through the bone marrow cells' fibrosis (cellular hardening and scarring). Mesenchymal stem cells, owing to their antifibrotic attributes, potentially hold and palliate fibrosis. Thus, mesenchymal stem cell therapy is recognized and accredited for its potency in palliating fibrotic changes that surface in the bone marrow.

3. Render Assistance to Disabled Hematopoietic Stem Cells: In addition to their multipotency (can be configured into any cellular subtype) attributes, mesenchymal stem cells could upscale and buttress the functional aspects of the hematopoietic stem cells. It is these hematopoietic stem cells that are labeled as the direct forebearers of blood cells. In certain hematologic ailments that are instigated by the disablement of these hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cell therapy could be instigated to render support and offset the derangement prompted by the disabled hematopoietic stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy, when advocated under such instances, could modulate and structure the bone marrow’s microscopic cellular organizations, which in turn upscale the functional prospects of the hematopoietic stem cells. It thereby improves the blood profile and helps it move towards the healthy side.

4. Immune Response Modulation: Certain hematologic ailments are guided by immunological dysfunctions like autoimmune hemolytic anemia (red cells are being destructed and devastated by their own immune cells, thus down-turning the proportions of red cells in the blood profile). Mesenchymal stem cells showcase immunomodulatory attributes whereby the aberrant immune reactions prompted in opposition to the red cells could be revised and tempered down such that the red blood cells will be excused from getting destroyed. These mesenchymal stem cells could impart a direct supremacy over immune functions and could even shape and temper the immune response accordingly.

5. Encourages Repair and Regeneration: Regenerative attributes of the mesenchymal stem cells are exploited in hematologic conditions where the critical area concerned with blood cell genesis, the bone marrow, gets functionally and structurally disabled and impeded. In such instances, mesenchymal stem cell therapy has been advocated to rehabilitate and repair the disabled bone marrow. The mesenchymal stem cell therapy could bring the bone marrow back to its functional state by prompting repair.


Mesenchymal stem cell therapy is being embraced and adopted as a key intervention for tackling hematologic disorders. Despite the benefits that mesenchymal stem cell therapy could bring forth, certain studies showcased that mesenchymal stem cell therapy could heighten the gravity of pneumonia (lung infection instigated by microbes). Therefore, the advocation of mesenchymal stem cell therapy for the patient ought to be strategically framed so that the prospects for risks can be palliated. The therapeutic potentialities of mesenchymal stem cells are yet to be figured out, and many more studies are still being done.

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Dr. Abdul Aziz Khan
Dr. Abdul Aziz Khan

Medical oncology


hematological disordersstem cell therapy
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