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Long COVID - Long-Term Effects of COVID-19

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Long COVID - Long-Term Effects of COVID-19

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Long COVID is a term used for patients who suffer from coronavirus symptoms even months after recovery. Read the article to know more.

Medically reviewed by

Dr. Anshul Varshney

Published At September 16, 2020
Reviewed AtMarch 9, 2023


Though Coronavirus cases are increasing worldwide; it is more controlled than before due to the vaccination rates. With an increasing number of people reporting prolonged symptoms after recovering from COVID-19, this virus is affecting not only the lungs but also other body parts, including the heart and brain. Many patients continue to have a cough, throat irritation, and body weakness for weeks, even after fighting off the virus. Some of them even complain of heart problems, psychological distress, and brain fog. This is why it is crucial to get vaccinated and strictly follow social distancing, home quarantine, and isolation guidelines. Instead of waiting for a vaccine or a drug to cure this infection, people must take all the precautions to keep themselves and others safe. Even if a person, do recover from COVID-19, are they really free of its effects?

What Does "Long COVID" Mean?

"Long COVID" is the term used for the effects of COVID-19 in people who experience symptoms weeks to months after the initial infection with SARS-CoV-2 and recovery. Until now, scientists and doctors only talked about people getting infected mildly and recovering quickly, or getting severely sick and ending up in the ICU on oxygen support. And that most people with a mild infection get better in 2 weeks after the first symptom appears, and critically ill patients might take six weeks or more. But an increasing number of recovered patients are coming back to hospitals after weeks or months with symptoms such as fatigue, heart palpitations, joint pain, dyspnea (shortness of breath), brain fog, loss of smell or taste or both, and heart, kidneys, brain, and lungs damage.

A new study conducted in the United Kingdom showed that 1 in every 10 COVID-19-recovered patients is at risk of developing long-term symptoms. In this study, the health of 100 recovered COVID-19 patients, of which 68 had mild COVID-19 infection, and the rest 32 had a severe infection, were examined to look for long-lasting symptoms and long-term consequences of the infection. Scientists found that 10 to 15 % of people, including some with mild infections, did not recover quickly from all symptoms and took months. Another study conducted in Italy showed that around 87.4 % of patients had at least one lingering symptom, mostly fatigue or shortness of breath.

With the infection just months old, we do not know what COVID patients have to endure in the future or if it will result in other chronic diseases.

Things That We Know So Far About COVID-19:

We already know that the SARS-CoV-2 virus does not only affect the lungs and other respiratory organs but can also result in blood clots, skin lesions, diarrhea, and other atypical symptoms. The spike protein on the surface of this new virus latches on the surface of ACE2 receptors, which are present in the cells' surface of the lungs, digestive tract, heart, kidneys, nervous system, and blood vessels, making them vulnerable to the virus.

What Are the Lingering Symptoms of COVID-19?

The common signs and symptoms that persist are:

  1. Tiredness or Fatigue - People with COVID-19 are finding it hard to get back on their feet after recovery. With long-lasting weakness for weeks and months, patients experience muscle aches, palpitations, unbalanced energy levels, pins and needles pain, etc.

  2. Shortness of Breath - Also called dyspnea or breathlessness, it is usually accompanied by chest pain in most . This is the second most common long-term effect of COVID-19. But, this is more common in people who were admitted to intensive care during the active phase. Shortness of breath can also indicate heart-lung damage or scarring, which is also a long-term complication.

  3. Cough - Though fever and cough are among the first signs of COVID-19, many patients experience chronic dry or wet cough even after recovering.

  4. Joint Pain and Headaches - Along with a general feeling of tiredness or weakness, many patients continue to have joint pain, muscle aches, and headaches for weeks.

  5. A Racing Heart - As the heart muscles also have ACE2 receptors, the virus is believed to damage the heart muscles, resulting in scarring. This scarring can result in irregular heartbeats or arrhythmias.

  6. Hypertension - The virus targets the heart and blood vessels, resulting in high blood pressure, even in patients who were previously healthy and just had a mild COVID-19 infection.

  7. Post-Intensive Care Syndrome - Patients who were isolated and treated in the intensive care unit are showing symptoms of PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder). The near-death experience, isolation, pain, sleep disturbances, and being bed-ridden bedridden are resulting in mental distress, memory decline, behavior problems, and other symptoms after recovery.

  8. Anxiety and Stress - Post-recovery patients are finding it hard to fight stress and anxiety. Patients are more likely to suffer from insomnia, stress, depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

  9. Parosmia and Phantosmia - Parosmia is an altered sense of smell, and phantosmia is a sense of foul smell not present. People who recovered from COVID-19 were found to have both these conditions for months. The weird smell was mostly of sewage, rotten eggs and meat, and smelly socks. Most people recovered from this in three months, but few people were found to have parosmia and phantosmia for more than seven months.

Organ Damage and COVID-19:

The new Coronavirus is believed to affect the following organs:

  1. Lungs - Pneumonia caused by COVID-19 can result in long-standing damage to the lungs' alveoli, which are small air sacs that help in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. This damage results in scarring, which can cause long-term breathing difficulties.

  2. Heart - Even in people who experienced mild symptoms of COVID-19, heart images show damage to the heart muscle. The scarring of the heart muscles increases the risk of heart failure and other complications later in life.

  3. Brain - COVID-19 affects the brain and results in strokes, seizures, and temporary paralysis (Guillain-Barre syndrome). It may also make people susceptible to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

  4. Blood Vessel Damage - COVID-19 increases the risk of stroke and heart attack, as it is more likely to cause blood clots. Bigger clots can result in heart attacks and strokes, and smaller clots can damage tiny blood vessels in various organs, including the heart, lungs, liver, legs, and kidneys.


For all those people who think that the new Coronavirus will result in severe symptoms only in older adults and people with comorbidities, they might not have had severe symptoms. However, they are still at risk of developing long-term organ damage and other health problems. There is still a lot to learn about COVID-19, and scientists are finding something new every day. Stop the spread by getting fully vaccinated, sticking to strict social distancing guidelines, and wearing a mask or covering the nose and mouth when social distancing cannot be maintained. Avoid venturing out unnecessarily, and stay home and safe as much as possible.

Frequently Asked Questions


What Is the Most Important Long-Term Impact of COVID?

Various health conditions have been noticed due to the impact of COVID-19. The most important long-term effect of Covid19 includes a weak immune system and recurrent infections. Other conditions, such as diabetes, and heart conditions, also occur, and few depend on the severity of the COVID-19 infection. There needs to be proper evidence of how long these conditions have existed.


Is Long COVID Permanent?

In some people, the post-COVID symptoms last for longer durations, such as a few days or months, and in some people, the symptoms may last for certain durations and go away, and there are chances of recurrence also. No proper research or evidence is stating whether the effect of long COVID is temporary or permanent.


How Do I Get Rid of Long COVID?

If an individual  experiences long COVID, keep your health checkups frequently. Make yourself comfortable, divide the tasks that make you feel tiering into smaller chunks, or do them in portions. Based on your energy level, do the tasks at a particular time when people feel better. frequent short naps and simple exercises may keep you feeling better. Do not stop doing exercises that make you breathe rapidly.


Can COVID-19 Cause Problems Years Later?

COVID-19 long-term symptoms that last for a few months and years. In some, the symptoms or the problems caused post covid to last for a few months and go away and also have a high chance of recurrence. There needs to be proper evidence of how long these conditions will exist.


How Do People Test for Long COVID?

Single tests do not diagnose long COVID. Various individual tests are required to confirm long COVID such as blood tests, ECG, heart rate, blood pressure checks, chest X-rays, pulse oximetry, and exercise tolerance tests. Individual tests help you know the condition better and how it is affecting the individual.


How Do Individuals Can Treat Post-covid Fatigue?

Simple exercises post-COVID may help to recover from aches, pain, and fatigue.To preserve energy, reduce the level of workouts and daily activities performed . Even meditation, yoga, slow walking, massage therapy, and acupuncture may also help to recover from post-COVID fatigue.


Can Long COVID Last 4 Months?

In some people, the post-COVID symptoms last for longer durations, such as a few days or months, and in some people, the symptoms may last for certain durations and go away, and there are chances of recurrence also. No proper research or evidence states whether the effect of long COVID lasts for certain months.


What Vitamins Should Individuals Take for Long COVID?

Proper dietary and lifestyle changes may help to recover from COVID quickly. Vitamins and minerals are crucial for a healthy and quick recovery from COVID. Vitamin C helps boost immunity, prevents infections, and improves healing, and Vitamin B12 helps recover from fatigue, shortness of breath, and thinking disabilities.


What Foods Help With COVID Recovery?

Dietary changes will quicken the recovery period from COVID infection. Vegetables and fruits are rich in beta-carotene, Ascorbic acid, and various foods are rich in Vitamin C and B12. Foods like mushrooms, tomato, bell pepper, and green vegetables such as broccoli and spinach are the foods that help to fight against infections.


Can Long COVID Be Treated?

There is no single medication or treatment that will help to treat Long Covid. Dietary and lifestyle changes help in quick recovery. Slow exercises post-COVID may help recover from aches, pain, and fatigue. To preserve energy, reduce the level of workouts and daily activities performed. Meditation, yoga, slow walking, massage therapy, and acupuncture may help recover from post-COVID fatigue.


What Are the Lingering Problems of COVID?

Post complications of Long Covid can be severe sometimes, such as palpitations caused by inappropriate tachycardia, postural orthostatic tachycardia to hyperadrenergic state or ventricular arrhythmias, or ventricular irregular rhythms leading to myocardial fibrosis and scarring.


Can People Get COVID Back to Back?

The chances of back-to-back occurrences of COVID are high. The reinfection of the virus means the person is infected initially, recovers from an infection, and is reinfected again. Most individuals will have little protection from the chance of infection, but reinfections occur due to improper COVID precautions and poor immunity.


Should Individuals Exercise Along With COVID?

It is always better to avoid exercises when you are sick, especially when the sickness is below the neck, especially chest congestion, severe cough, stomach upset, etc., If the person is ok doing then yes, he can do simple exercises slowly, this may make relief from fatigue and aches.


What Do People Drink COVID With?

With COVID, it is better to drink warm water the whole day. Increase your intake of cumin, coriander, and garlic, or make a herbal tea with a blend of holy basil, cinnamon, black pepper, dry ginger, and raisins. Regular meditation, yoga, and pranayama may also help to feel better from the post-COVID complications.


How Can One Boost Their Immune System After COVID Recovery?

Various factors play a vital role in improving the immune system, that includes healthy eating habits, relief from stress, physical exercise, plenty of sleep, lifestyle modifications that include meditation, yoga, avoiding smoking, and tobacco consumption, and taking proper medications.
Source Article IclonSourcesSource Article Arrow
Dr. Anshul Varshney
Dr. Anshul Varshney

Internal Medicine


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