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Post-malaria Neurological Syndrome - Types, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Published on Sep 05, 2022 and last reviewed on Sep 23, 2022   -  4 min read


Post-malaria neurological syndrome is a rare syndrome that affects individuals after recovering from malaria. To know more, read the article below.



This post-malaria neurological syndrome (PMNS) is characterized by neurological manifestations, including neurological deficit to encephalopathy. Cerebral malaria is a severe neurological condition after the individual has contracted malaria. This is seen after one to four months after the disease condition. The disease mortality is high, and there is long-term neurocognitive impairment in some surviving victims. In this article, you can read the effects of the disease and the causes to understand the neural defects and their treatment.

Where Is This More Predominant?

Malaria is a disease that causes health issues that cause neurological symptoms, which leads to death in many tropical countries. Children below five years in the African race are more affected the most. Severe malaria is manifested as anemia. Some symptoms are hypoglycemia, seizure, acidosis, coma, and multiple organ failure.

What Are the Symptoms of PMNS?

Clinically coma is the last stage for severe malaria infection.

Some other symptoms can be:

How Does PMNS Happen?

The mechanism of PMNS is not clearly understood but an idea of how this neurological damage can be explained from the postmortem bodies.

What Can Be Affected Due to PMNS?

What Are the Treatment and Management Options of PMNS?

Steroids, immunoglobulin, acetylsalicylic acid, heparin, anti-TNF agents, mannitol, iron chelation, micronutrients, and prophylactic anticonvulsants are used for therapy. Prophylactic Phenobarbital was associated with respiratory depression. The respiratory depressant prophylactic anticonvulsant, Fosphenytoin, and B5 complex provitamin pantethine prevented the development of the post-malaria neurological syndrome. Erythropoietin provides neuroprotection, infectious encephalopathy, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy can also be reduced, and patients can have a better prognosis.


This is necessary for particular areas such as physical and occupational therapy, behavior and speech therapy, cognitive rehabilitation, and hearing aids. This can help the patient improve the condition and help to live a quality lifestyle.


Post-malaria neurological syndromes cause brain injury. Coma and brain damage develops through multiple mechanisms, and there are several reasons for brain injury. Therefore Combinations of adjuvant therapies are needed for specific mechanisms of brain injury to improve neurocognitive outcomes. Meanwhile, MRI can provide important insights into pathogenesis.


Frequently Asked Questions


Can Malaria Cause Neurological Problems?

Yes, seizures, agitation, psychosis, impaired consciousness, and coma are among the neurological symptoms of malaria; the latter two symptoms are the hallmarks of cerebral malaria. The most serious neurological side effect of Plasmodium falciparum infection is cerebral malaria. After recovering from malaria, typically severe falciparum malaria, a rare self-limiting neurological complication known as a post-malaria neurological syndrome (PMNS), may develop. A wide range of neuropsychiatric manifestations characterizes it, from mild neurological deficit to severe encephalopathy.


Can Malaria Cause Permanent Damage to the Brain?

When malaria affects the brain, it becomes extremely dangerous. Plasmodium falciparum causes red blood cells to build up inside tiny blood vessels in the brain, obstructing blood flow and resulting in cerebral malaria. This may raise blood pressure and cause swelling in the brain, pushing sensitive brain tissue up against the skull. As a result, patients may experience seizures, fall into a coma, and, if they survive, experience permanent brain damage.


What Is the Treatment for Post-malaria Neurological Syndrome?

Treatment methods include using steroids, acetylsalicylic acid, immunoglobulin, Heparin, anti-TNF medications, Mannitol, micronutrients, iron chelation, and prophylactic anticonvulsants. Respiratory depression was linked to prophylactic phenobarbital. The post-malaria neurological syndrome was prevented by the respiratory depressant prophylactic anticonvulsant, Fosphenytoin, and the B5 complex provitamin pantethine.
Erythropoietin offers neuroprotection and can lessen the effects of infectious and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and improve patient prognosis.


Can Malaria Stay in the Body Forever?

Some malaria parasite strains, which typically cause less severe disease, can linger for years and lead to relapses. Malaria has been known to remain in some people's blood for several decades if untreated. However, in general, the parasites are completely eradicated if you receive the proper treatment for the disease.


How Is Cerebral Malaria Diagnosed?

The asexual form of P. falciparum must be visible in thick and thin blood smears for diagnosing cerebral malaria. Before ruling out cerebral malaria, at least three smears must be negative. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and the rapid diagnostic test (antigen detection test) could also be helpful. CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) analysis is required to rule out other possible causes of febrile encephalopathy. In cerebral malaria, the CSF is typically normal; however, a small pleocytosis (10–50 cells/mm3) and a protein elevation of up to 200 mg/dL may be present.


Is Cerebral Malaria Fatal?

Without treatment, cerebral malaria is always fatal. Parenteral antimalarials (Cinchonoids or artemisinin derivatives) are recommended for use in children, but even with this therapy, 15-20% of patients still pass away. However, mortality was reduced in adults who received intravenous artesunate therapy. Fortunately, a significant portion of those who do survive cerebral malaria typically make a full recovery and have all of their neurological symptoms go away. However, some neurological symptoms could linger for a few days or weeks after you recover from cerebral malaria.

Article Resources

Last reviewed at:
23 Sep 2022  -  4 min read




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