COPD stands for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, which is a group of chronic inflammatory lung diseases that obstruct airflow from lungs and cause difficulty in breathing. COPD is most commonly caused by emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The symptoms include dyspnea, wheezing, chest tightness, persistent cough, and cyanosis.

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Does COPD cause pulmonary fibrosis?

Query: Hi doctor,Ten years ago, I was diagnosed with moderate to severe COPD. I am not on oxygen, and I remain active. My oxygen saturation stays around 95 percent. I am 60 years old. My height is 5 feet 10 inches, and my weight is 145 lbs. I am a nonsmoker. A recent CT scan of my back says scarring in my ...  Read Full »

Dr. Zubayeralam


Answer: Hi, Welcome to Thanks for the query. I can understand your concern. According to your statement, you had a history of moderate to severe COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder) ten years back. Your recent CT scan (computed tomography) has suggested scarring in your lungs. Pulmon...  Read Full »

What does pulmonary hyperaerated, bilateral, in a chest x-ray mean?

Query: Hi doctor, I am having a cough and a weird feeling while exhaling. I am experiencing this issue for more than a month now. Previously, I coughed out phlegm with blood. It looked like fresh blood. Currently, I have phlegm. I have pain while exhaling air. I have pain in my upper left-back. I have a h...  Read Full »

Dr. Zubayeralam


Answer: Hi,Welcome to understand your concern. According to your statement, you are suffering from a cough. You have a history of bronchitis and your recent chest X-ray shows pulmonary hyperaerated bilateral. It means that there is an abnormal increase in lung volume with an increased filling ...  Read Full »

Is hernia surgery advisable for a 73-year-old man with a bad medical condition?

Query: Hi doctor, I am a VA patient. I have a GFR of 27. I have polycystic kidneys, COPD, and emphysema with severe allergies. I have hiatal hernia for 15 years. Now I am 73 years old. In this bad health, my doctor advises me to have a hernia operation to rebuild the valve. In this bad medical condition, ...  Read Full »

Dr. Anushtup De

General Surgeon

Answer: Hi, Welcome to I do not understand the full form of VA. On considering your multiple comorbidities, surgery can be considered if you are severely symptomatic due to hiatal hernia. If you have minimal symptoms such as reflux or bloating, or heartburn, then surgery is not needed. Please...  Read Full »

What causes bronchovascular markings in the lungs?

Query: Hi doctor, I am a 27-year-old male. Two weeks ago, I had severe coughing with small wheezing. I took Ascoril D plus but did not get any relief. So, I went to a doctor. He checked and told me it is bronchospasm. I had upper and lower back pain, shortness of breath, and non-stop coughing. He prescrib...  Read Full »

Dr. Zubayeralam


Answer: Hi, Welcome to Thanks for the query. I can understand your concern. According to your statement, you have been suffering from non-stop coughing, shortness of breath with small wheezing, etc., for the last few days. Your recent CXR (chest X-ray) has shown prominent bronchovascular ma...  Read Full »

Is it advisable to use a Morphine nebulizer in end-stage COPD?

Query: Hello doctor, I am a 68-year-old male. I have lung emphysema, end-stage COPD diagnosed as stage III. I had a heart operation (stent) the previous year, and heart failure signs for four months. My symptoms are breathlessness on lying down supine, particularly at night. When waking up at night, it i...  Read Full »

Dr. Zubayeralam


Answer: Hi, Welcome to I can understand your concern. According to your statement, you have been suffering from breathlessness while lying down supine, particularly at night. Dyspnea resulting from complications due to endstage diseases like endstage COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disea...  Read Full »

Are COPD patients most at risk for COVID-19?

Query: Hello doctor, Today is the 17th day after the COVID-19 positive result. I have breathing difficulties, cough and think it has reduced now. I consulted a doctor on 15 th day. According to the doctor, my chest is clear and my blood report are fine. In the past 15 days, I contacted hospital for admis...  Read Full »

Dr. Penchala Prasad Kandikattu

Internal Medicine Physician

Answer: Hello, Welcome to I can understand your problem. Do not worry. Usually the incubation period is around 14 days.  Read Full »

My friend gets chest pain after using inhalers. Kindly suggest an alternate medicine.

Query: hello I have a friend who is smoking since the 5th grade, she stopped smoking 4 months ago she was diagnosed with COPD. she gave her an inhaler Symbicort but when she takes it she has chest pain they change it for her flutiform she had also severe chest pain. she is 23 years old 43 kg  Read Full »

Dr. Nasir

Internal Medicine Physician

Answer: Good day to you ma'am I have gone through your problem and its seems that your friend might be having some of the side effects of one of the medicines in the the inhaler.the inhaler that she is using contains two medicines. one of them is a beta 2 adrenergic receptor agonists and other is Corticost...  Read Full »

Kindly explain my chest CT scan.

Query: Hi doctor, I had viral fever about three weeks back accompanied by cough, breathlessness and exertion. I have consulted a pulmonologist and he advised blood tests. Now, I have breathlessness after a long walk and slopes, tingling sensation in the heart and there is a feeling of phlegm in the throat....  Read Full »

Dr. Sunil Kumar Nookala


Answer: Hello, Welcome to From your CT findings (attachment removed to protect patient identity), it appears to be a post-tuberculosis sequelae. As you have exertions, breathlessness and feeling of expectoration, I suggest you to undergo a spirometry to rule out post-tuberculosis COPD (chronic ...  Read Full »

Is mild cough a symptom of Coronavirus?

Query: Hello doctor, I have been suffering from mild cough for the past two months. I consulted my general physician she asked me to go for chest x-ray and CBC. Chest x-ray is normal only and ESR showed 85. I have no fever and no sore throat. Appetite is also normal. Doctor prescribed me antiallergic tabl...  Read Full »

Dr. Vandana Andrews

Internal Medicine Physician

Answer: Hi, Welcome to I understand your concern. Let us first list some of the common symptoms of Coronavirus infection. Fever, cough dry, shortness of breath. Mild cough with no fever is not quite under criteria. Though any cough for more than three weeks should be diagnosed, but this does ...  Read Full »

How is COPD treated?

Query: Hi doctor, My father has SpO2 level with oxygen is more than 95 and without oxygen is 75-80. He also has COPD. But, all tests are normal like CT scan, USG and x-ray. Please explain.  Read Full »

Dr. Amolkumar W Diwan


Answer: Hello, Welcome to  As you said your father has COPD, low oxygen levels are expected when the disease is advanced. COPD is a chronic progressive disease. Inhaler medicines are only for the symptomatic relief. Smoking cessation is the best policy to halt the progression of the disease. P...  Read Full »

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