The failure of vaccines begins when the viruses start resisting the vaccinations. Read this article to know more.
Viruses are made up of many coded genetic materials. The DNA information is responsive to the structural function of the human body. Likewise, RNA is responsible for the virus. In general, when a microorganism enters the body, the first and the foremost responsibility of the body is immune power that helps in the destruction of the microorganism. When the microorganism is very powerful and virulent, or if the immune system is weak, then the body fails to kill them.
In some cases, immunity is not effective against new pathogens. These viruses have the ability to transform into different types. This ability is known as viral mutation. As far as COVID-19 is concerned, the virus that causes it has the ability to modify its genetic information, which is different from the earlier versions. The virulence of the new strain of the virus is questionable. The degree of mutation increases when the virus spreads from one individual to another. Until the complete details of the structure and characteristics of the mutated virus are identified, it is not possible to understand them deeply and find medicine or a vaccine that works well against it.
For instance, one individual from India traveled to Malaysia and became the root cause for spreading a new mutated strain called D614g. There were approximately 45 members affected, and this group of members was called the Sivaganga cluster. The strain of D614g had a faster capacity to spread.
Vaccines that are implemented earlier were based on the features of the older version of the new Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Now, after various viral mutations, scientists are not sure how the approved COVID-19 vaccines work against any new strain with multiple mutations, especially in their spike protein. Data shows that two of the vaccines that are approved for emergency use against SARS-CoV-2 are not effective in countries like South Africa. This has awakened fear and the need for instant development of powerful and efficient vaccines to conquer both the older and newer strains of SARS-CoV-2.
Reports from Johnson & Johnson revealed that the recent shots of the COVID-19 vaccine were approximately 72 % effective in the prevention of moderate and severe cases of COVID-19 in the United States of America, and the same was only 57 % effective in South America and 66 % effective in Latin America.
The virus has mutated several times since it was identified more than a year back. In the vast range of mutations, there have been less severe variants also. From the perspective of evolutionary biological sciences, the feature of variation and mutation is a highly expected factor. Even though it is expected, it is necessary for us to stay aware and expect the unexpected. Scientists initially thought that it might take several years for new strains of SARS-CoV-2 to resist COVID-19 vaccines, but elevated mutations have accelerated this.
The side effects that can possibly occur due to COVID-19 vaccines are:
Pain and swelling in the site where the shot was given.
Nausea and vomiting.
More than 100 million people are known to be affected by this virus on a worldwide basis. As the virus multiplies and mutates inside human cells, each positive case of COVID-19 is another chance for the virus to mutate in a random fashion. One of the biggest problems with the capacity of mutation is that it sets an advantage for the virus. The body’s natural defense mechanism is affected and has only limited possibilities for acting against the virus. This puts a sign of a red flag. Looking at all the outcomes of the situation, we can say that the second wave of COVID-19 and its mutated versions is a definite attention seeker. By considering the less virulent mutations of SARS-CoV-2, we cannot ignore or assault the virus.
A significant indication for the mutations in SARS-CoV-2 was seen when there were several people who acquired the virus for the second time. The immunity that was developed in the individual during their first attack was not successful in acting against the mutated virus, which resulted in re-infection. The greatest disturbance was created for the scientists at Pfizer BioNTech and Moderna when they understood that the same poor response of the immune system could be generated with the vaccines when the individual is affected by new strains.
Recently, different versions of the virus were collected and exposed to various blood samples from a limited crowd of people who already received the vaccination. The antibodies that were produced in the body to neutralize the virus were very effective in the case of the Moderna vaccine. But, the Pfizer vaccine was not very efficient against the variant that was prevalent in South Africa. Due to the insufficient statistical reports, countries like India temporarily rejected the vaccines from Pfizer.
The goal is to focus on limiting the new strains of the virus. To achieve this, we have to block the routes by which the mutation can occur. The main route through which the virus jumps from one person to another is through close contact between people. Restricting close contact makes it possible to isolate the virus. By bringing the virus to an isolated state, it is possible to lower new cases. To make this practically possible, we have to maintain social distancing. By following this, we can prevent the virus from infecting others. All survivors should avoid getting exposed to the second wave with a new strain. Booster shots will be required for delivering immunity against new variants.
In addition to social distancing, proper maintenance of hygiene is highly recommended. The usage of face masks and gloves is recommended on a normal basis. High-risk people should enjoy staying in an isolated place rather than crowding in public. Older adults, kids, and pregnant women fall under the high-risk category. It is also our responsibility to get advice from highly qualified experts before choosing to receive the vaccine. When there are insufficient reports on the mutated viruses, it is our responsibility to stay additionally secured. In this way, we can overcome many clueless issues.
For more help, contact a specialist at iCliniq!
Last reviewed at:
06 Jan 2022 - 4 min read
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