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Different and Rare Blood Types - Types, Benefits, Risks, and Complications.

Published on Aug 05, 2022   -  5 min read

Abstract

Individuals have distinct blood types based upon the antigen present. Learn more in this article about the rarest and most compatible blood types.

Contents

Introduction

Blood is something that all individuals share. People's blood is made up of red blood cells, plasma, platelets, and white blood cells. While all blood has the same function, it is not the same blood.

Blood is categorized into different kinds based on the presence or absence of specific antigens, most often proteins. The immune system reacts to antigens by producing antibodies. There is a system known as the ABO system for determining blood types. Depending on their presence or absence, many additional antigens might cause "rare blood types," depending on their presence or absence. Blood and organ transfusions and transplants require matching blood types, and the child's blood type might impact pregnancy.

There are four primary blood types and three uncommon blood types. The distribution of blood types varies by community and geographical location. Blood type has an impact on health. This is inherited. Each parent gives their child one allele (gene) for blood type.

Where Does Blood Originate?

Blood is formed from bone marrow, a sponge-like tissue. It constitutes many components, mainly white blood cells, red blood cells, plasma, and platelets. The red blood cells give our blood its unique red color. The brilliant red hue of red blood cells comes from a protein that permits them to transport oxygen from the lungs to other body parts (hemoglobin). They usually survive for around 120 days before dying.

How Are the Different Blood Types Formed?

Although there are at least 33 blood type systems, only two are frequently used. It consists of the following:

Which Are the Rare Blood Types?

1. Golden Blood or Rh-null: With less than 50 known cases worldwide, it is the rarest blood type around the globe. Rh-null is a condition in which an individual's blood lacks all 61 antigens. Rh-null can be donated to persons with blood types that are incredibly different from the central eight since it is devoid of any potential antigens. On the other hand, Rh-null could only receive blood from Rh-null persons. Rh-null blood is vital for scientific investigation due to its rarity and unusual qualities, giving it the nickname "Golden Blood."

2. Ab Negative (Ab−) Blood: Of the eight primary blood groups, AB negative makes up the smallest percentage, contributing to less than one percent of the global population.

While AB-negative may accept blood from all Rh types, it could only donate blood to Rh-negative and Rh-positive people who may have AB blood. Due to the presence of A and B antigens in AB-negative red cells, AB blood is the most common plasma donor in the world, meaning any blood group can receive plasma from AB blood.

3. The HH Blood Type, Bombay Blood Type, or Rare ABO Group: The HH blood type, often known as the Bombay blood group, is an uncommon ABO group. This sporadic phenotypic blood group is present in only four people out of every million. However, one out of every 10,000 persons in Bombay may have it. Though persons with the Bombay blood group are also O, they lack the extra H antigen, a constituent of the ABO blood group. Therefore, the "Bombay phenotype" is defined as lacking H antigen. A person who belongs to the Bombay blood group can donate blood to someone who belongs to the ABO blood group. However, they can only draw blood from people who have the same blood type as them, which is the HH blood type.

How and What Makes Blood So Rare?

What Are the Benefits of Knowing the Blood Type?

What Are the Complications of Having a Rare Blood Type?

There has been no definitive answer to whether blood type influences the likelihood of getting sick. However, the following are some of the complications:

Where Do Uncommon Blood Donations Arrive From?

Rare blood types are supplied in three different ways:

Conclusion

In conclusion, there are many blood typing methods, but the ABO and Rh systems, which offer the eight basic blood types, are the most commonly recognized. Surprisingly, not all 'foreign' antigens are similarly likely to be targeted to eliminate antibodies. Although therefore, there are 36 identified blood group systems overall. Few blood types are avoided during blood transfusions.

AB-negative blood is the rarest blood type of all the eight basic blood kinds. Bombay blood group and Golden blood or Rh-null are the sporadic blood groups. However, because blood type is connected to heredity, no one style is called the world's most irregular.

A person with an uncommon blood type will have a more challenging time receiving a blood transfusion. It can also raise the risk of specific health problems, particularly after an organ transplant, after particular health conditions, and during pregnancy.

It is critical to understand one's blood type and find one who may take a quick blood test. In some cases, when donating blood for the first time, many people discover their blood type.

People with unusual blood types should speak with their doctors about safe blood transfusion options.

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Last reviewed at:
05 Aug 2022  -  5 min read

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