Women's Health

Miscarriage

Written by Dr. Divya Banu M and medically reviewed by Dr. Veena Madhankumar

 
Image: Miscarriage

Contents


A miscarriage is the death of the baby within the mother’s womb, and medically it is known as spontaneous abortion. This can either happen during the first three months of pregnancy or later. Most of the time, the cause is not known, but females who have had miscarriages earlier have had a healthy pregnancy later.

Causes of Miscarriage:

If the miscarriage happens during the first trimester, it is primarily due to a problem with the chromosomes of the fetus (baby). Majority of the situations are related to this type.

The second one can be related to the development of the placenta, which is the organ connecting the blood supply between the mother and her baby.

If the miscarriage happens after the first three months, it is mostly related to the mother's health. They are as follows:

  • Chronic illness like diabetes, thyroid disorders, lupus erythematosus, etc.

  • Infections acquired during pregnancy like sexually transmitted diseases, vaginosis, etc.

  • Certain medications consumed. For example, Misoprostol, NSAIDs like Ibuprofen, Methotrexate, and Retinoids.

  • Consumption of contaminated food.

  • Fibroid or any other growth in the womb.

  • The shape of the womb being abnormal.

  • Weak muscles of cervix due to previous injury or surgery leading to an early opening of the cervix.

  • Hormonal changes in the ovary leading to a polycystic ovarian syndrome, ultimately infertility, and miscarriages.

Risk Factors of Miscarriage:

  • Long-term diseases like diabetes, autoimmune conditions, hormonal disorders.

  • Two or more miscarriages in the past.

  • Smoking habits.

  • Alcohol or drugs usage.

  • Excessive caffeine consumption.

  • Exposure to radiation.

  • Injury or accidents or trauma.

  • Advanced maternal age (greater than 35 years).

  • The weight of the mother (overweight).

Signs And Symptoms of Miscarriage:

The main being vaginal bleeding which can or cannot be associated with cramps. It is important to note that mild bleeding in the initial days can also be due to implantation bleeding and hence, it is essential to consult a doctor to be assured. The following other symptoms can be accompanied:

  • A backache.

  • Decreased or missing pregnancy symptoms.

  • Vaginal discharge, ranging from the blood clot to mucus or fluid which is pinkish in color.

  • Severe and frequent painful contractions.

Treatment for Miscarriage:

It is not possible to stop miscarriage once it has begun. There can be two things happening, either a complete or an incomplete abortion and in any case you should visit your doctor.

When it comes to an incomplete abortion, you will be advised three options. One is a natural way; other is through medicine and the next being surgery.

  • The natural way is also called as expectant management of miscarriage in which there is a wait and watch approach to check for complete passage of the pregnancy products either at home or in the hospital.

  • The medicinal approach includes the prescription of medicines (mainly hormonal) that will help or speed up the process of evacuation or passage of the dead baby and other products. The effect of the drugs can be visible post four to six hours of consumption, and sometimes it may delay too. If this method does not work, you will be advised for surgical management.

  • The surgical approach is a minor procedure which is called dilatation and curettage (D&C). As the name suggests, in this, the cervix is dilated, and the products are excavated from the uterus. This is done under spinal or epidural anesthesia in an operation theatre but does not involve any cutting of tissues.

How To Prevent Miscarriage?

The chromosomal defect of the fetus leading to miscarriage cannot be prevented, but genetic counseling can be done after the mishap and the various things that can be done to ensure prevention of other causes are as follows:

  • Regular exercises.

  • Avoid any kind of stress.

  • Consumption of nutritional supplements (like Folic acid).

  • Balanced- healthy diet.

  • Avoid smoking. Even passive smoking can be harmful.

  • Do not consume alcohol and limit the usage of caffeinated drinks.

  • Do not consume certain foods during pregnancy like papaya.

  • Stay away from radiation exposure or any kind of drugs or medicines that can prove to be dangerous (consult your doctor for the same).

  • Try to be in normal BMI (body mass index) and weight.

  • Take good care of your health and be careful about getting any infections.

  • Get treated or manage known chronic illnesses.

Miscarriages are always not under the control of the mother or anyone else. But we can take care of a few possible things to avoid it. It is a traumatic experience for the mother both physically and emotionally, and hence, support, care, and love of the near ones will help her cope up with the loss. Make sure to consult a doctor and discuss pregnancy and miscarriages so that you are aware and updated about it. A miscarriage does not mean infertility or no future pregnancy. So, do not lose hope. Most of the women have got a healthy pregnancy post miscarriage experiences, so you can too.

Last reviewed at: 24.Jan.2019

RATING

16
 


Do you have a question on Abortion or Pregnancy After Miscarriage?
 
* guaranteed answer within 4 hours.
 

Related Questions & Answers


Does miscarriage affect fertility?
Query: Hi doctor, I am a 36 year old male and my wife is 31 years old. We got married before two years and had not planned for pregnancy. My wife's medical history is as follows. Two years before her thyroid level was near 18 and she took regular medicine. Now her thyroid level came down between 2 and 3 a...  Read Full »
Dr. Gowrimeena
Obstetrician And Gynaecologist

Answer: Hi, Welcome to icliniq.com. Detailed information given by yourself is very useful to give you further direction in the planning of the baby. Generally, apart from doing routine prepregnancy checks, we need to do fertility related tests, including ovulation that have egg release confirmation thr...  Read Full »
 
I had miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy in the last six months. Is it endometriosis?
Query: Hi doctor, I am recently trying to get pregnant and in the past six months, have had a miscarriage and an ectopic pregnancy. I am wondering if there is a chance I have endometriosis. I am wondering this because I have no other risks/causes that could have caused the ectopic. There is no chance I co...  Read Full »
Dr. R Balakrishnan Menon
Obstetrician And Gynaecologist

Answer: Hi, Welcome to icliniq.com. How are you doing? From your history, the only problem I feel is the problem which could happen to the tube. Your history of having a tubal pregnancy and severe pain during sex, that is dyspareunia, means that there is some problem which is happening around the uterus ...  Read Full »
 
After abortion, my wife is bleeding from anus. How to manage?
Query: Hi doctor, My wife was admitted to hospital due to incomplete abortion and dengue fever NS1 reactive. She had 6 weeks pregnancy. Doctor has done surgical abortion and it was found dengue fever after blood test. She was admitted for three days. Her initial platelet count was 150000 and later 180000, ...  Read Full »
Dr. Sanjay Kumar Bhattacharyya
Obstetrician And Gynaecologist

Answer: Hello, Welcome to icliniq.com. How reliable were those blood tests? If those were reliable, then there is no need to worry for bleeding from two sites. Otherwise, repeat it from a good place. Secondly, just start any birth control pill from today as it will lessen the bleeding. I suggest Laxit plus...  Read Full »
 
Will high LH impact ovulation and healthy pregnancy in a PCOS patient?
Query: Hello doctor, I am 32. I have PCOS for past seven years. Now planning to conceive with Gonadotropin injection and timed intercourse. But my day two blood work shows FSH 4.7, LH 11.2 and prolactin 9. Due to high LH will I get ovulation and if so, how will be the chances of having a healthy pregnancy?...  Read Full »
Dr. Sameer Kumar
Family Physician, Obstetrician And Gynaecologist, Infertility Specialist

Answer: Hello, Welcome to icliniq.com. The LH levels are more than 10 as expected in PCOD, ideally should be less than 7, but still on the lower side. You can continue with the protocol and ideally LH surge occurs at 20 and usually the follicle is matter at 18 mm size. So, pertaining to your query that wh...  Read Full »
 
Is the abortion process complete or not?
Query: Hello doctor, I recently had an abortion pill. I took Mifepristone tablet first then after 36 hours, I took four tablets of Misoprostol of 200 mcg orally. At first, there was light bleeding during one hour then after some time I had heavy bleeding and it almost soaked two pads and it continued for ...  Read Full »
Dr. Sagar Ramesh Makode
Cardiologist

Answer: Hello, Welcome to icliniq.com. I guess you have not passed any tissue or mass like structures out of the vagina. So we cannot be sure about the complete termination of pregnancy. Presence of just bleeding does not ensure the complete termination. So our priority is to confirm it. Now it is a tim...  Read Full »
 

Ask a Doctor Online

* guaranteed answer within 4 hours

Related Tags