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HomeHealth articlesatopic dermatitisHow Autologous Bacteriotherapy Treats Staphylococcus Aureus With Atopic Dermatitis?

Autologous Bacteriotherapy - Uses, Benefits, and Methods

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Atopic dermatitis is a long-lasting condition that results in skin irritation, redness, and inflammation. To learn more about it, read the article below.

Written by

Dr. Saranya. P

Medically reviewed by

Dr. Sandhya Narayanan Kutty

Published At January 24, 2023
Reviewed AtDecember 27, 2023

Introduction:

Atopic dermatitis is dehydrated and itchy skin. The degree and location of the symptoms make it challenging to live with atopic dermatitis. In addition, Staphylococcus aureus may harm atopic dermatitis. The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS), which can eradicate S.aureus, is lacking in the skin microbiome of atopic dermatitis patients. Atopic dermatitis is incurable but can be controlled with proper treatment. Antihistamines, corticosteroid creams, and prescription drugs are available as treatments.

How Does Atopic Dermatitis Impact the Body?

Atopic dermatitis frequently appears in skin folds or flexes, such as behind the knees or inside the elbow. However, it can happen everywhere, including:

  • Hands and fingers.

  • Feet and toes.

  • Arms.

  • Legs.

  • Eyelids.

  • Lips.

How Common Is Atopic Dermatitis?

The condition is relatively standard. However, at some point, atopic dermatitis symptoms will appear in one in every ten newborns and young children. In addition, as individuals age, about two-thirds of those affected continue to have flare-ups.

What Signs and Symptoms Indicate Atopic Dermatitis?

The severity of a person's symptoms might range from minor to severe. Some of them are as follows:

  • Dry skin.

  • Itching can be pretty intense.

  • Inflammation and swelling.

  • Rashes that are red, brown, purple, or grey.

  • Tiny, fluid-filled lumps or crusting.

  • Rough skin.

How Is It Diagnosed?

The doctor will evaluate the skin and review the medical and family histories. They could occasionally do a skin or blood test as a confirmatory diagnosis.

What Is Bacteriotherapy?

The deliberate application of bacteria or bacterial byproducts in treating disease is known as bacteriotherapy. The various modes of bacteriotherapy are as follows:

  • Probiotics are bacteria that have health advantages when consumed.

  • Fecal matter transplants and intestinal microbiota transplants involve transferring gut germs from healthy donors' feces to the recipient to rebuild the microbiota.

  • Synbiotics combine probiotics, prebiotics, and nondigestible fibers that encourage the growth of beneficial microbes.

What Is the Relation Between Atopic Dermatitis and Staphylococcus Aureus?

Since 1974, there has been evidence of a direct link between Staphylococcus aureus colonization and atopic dermatitis. Defects in the skin barrier and decreased expression of human skin antimicrobial peptides (naturally occurring peptides that can kill microbes), such as cathelicidin and β-defensins, caused by TH2 cytokines, have been linked to the proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis. Abnormalities also influence Staphylococcus aureus overgrowth in atopic dermatitis patients in the microbiome's composition and functioning. Patients with atopic dermatitis do not have coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS), capable of producing antimicrobials that block Staphylococcus aureus.

How Is Autologous Bacteriotherapy Used in Atopic Dermatitis?

  • A large clinical study has been carried out to identify autologous bacteriotherapy's effect in treating S.aureus infection in patients with atopic dermatitis. In this study, antimicrobial-producing coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was isolated from the normal skin of each patient with atopic dermatitis. It is then multiplied (increase in number) by culture and applied to the skin lesions in atopic dermatitis patients.

  • The results of this clinical research indicate that using an autologous strain of skin commensal bacteria during bacteriotherapy can effectively reduce S.aureus colonization and lessen the severity of illness.

  • Beyond antibiotics, immunosuppression, and immunomodulation, this individualized method for S.aureus reduction may offer a different course of treatment for atopic dermatitis patients.

What Are the Benefits of Autologous Bacteriotherapy?

Studies have shown that topical application of specific coagulase-harmful Staphylococcal strains may help the host experience several positive effects. The benefits may include anti-inflammatory activity, wound healing enhancement, and cutaneous immunological protection.

What Are the Other Options to Control Infection in Atopic Dermatitis?

  1. Topical Antimicrobials: A weak physical barrier, poor immunological recognition, and other factors make atopic dermatitis patients more susceptible to superficial skin infections. Atopic dermatitis patients are more prone to bacterial colonization and viral or fungal infections. Topical antimicrobials are used as adjunct therapy for atopic dermatitis.

  2. Antiseptics: Although antiseptics might irritate the skin, they can be used to treat infections to try to prevent them. Common antiseptics include the following:

  • Bleach Bath: Fill a bathtub with water and add a half cap of household bleach. The majority of dermatologists advise a five to ten-minute soak in a bath. Apply moisturizer after the bath.

  • Potassium Permanganate: Use potassium permanganate as a warm soak or in a bath at a low concentration (1 in 10,000 dilutions). It can result in the transient brown coloring of the skin and nails and persistent browning of ceramic baths.

What Are the Other Treatment Methods to Control the Symptoms of Atopic Dermatitis?

Several drugs and treatments are available to assist in managing symptoms. Some of them are as follows.

  • Topical Steroids: Corticosteroid creams and ointments help to heal the skin and decrease itching. It is advised to use them as instructed because misuse might result in unfavorable side effects like thinning skin or pigment loss.

  • Oral Steroids: Prednisone or other oral corticosteroids may be prescribed by the doctor if the inflammation is severe to help control it. Due to possible adverse effects such as excessive blood sugar, stunted growth in children, and slower wound healing, the medications are used temporarily.

  • Wet Dressing: This extensive procedure requires the application of steroid creams, followed by wet bandages. A clinician might administer this treatment in a hospital environment while experiencing a severe flareup.

  • Dupilumab: People who have tried and failed to get relief from various forms of treatment for severe atopic dermatitis can now resort to new FDA (Food and Drug Administration)-approved injectable drugs.

Is It Possible to Prevent Atopic Dermatitis?

Although atopic dermatitis cannot be resolved entirely, some practices can decrease the likelihood of flare-ups. For example, avoiding potential triggers (including peanuts, tree nuts, eggs, soy, cow's milk, wheat, shellfish, and seafood) and keeping the skin well-hydrated can help reduce the flareups or their frequency.

What Effects Could Atopic Dermatitis Have on People?

The symptoms of atopic dermatitis will persist. However, as individuals learn how to control their symptoms successfully, the flare-ups will reduce in severity or reduce. People with atopic dermatitis should see their physicians frequently, depending on how often flares occur, to ensure they are getting the best treatment.

Conclusion:

Autologous bacteriotherapy helps treat Staphylococcus aureus colonization in atopic dermatitis patients. It serves as an alternative method to control the spread of infection and decrease the severity of the disease. An alternative approach is using antibacterial medicines as it helps reduce the severity.

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Dr. Sandhya Narayanan Kutty
Dr. Sandhya Narayanan Kutty

Venereology

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