Thyroid Cancer

The thyroid is a bilobed endocrine gland situated in the neck region and is butterfly-shaped. It regulates the body's metabolism. Any mutation or change in thyroid cells leads to thyroid cancer. The cells replicate at a faster rate. Symptoms of thyroid cancer include a lump or swelling in the neck region, hoarseness of voice, throat pain, dysphagia, etc. There are four types papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Papillary is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Iodine deficiency, radiation exposure, genetic inheritance, etc., are some of the factors attributed to their etiology. These are very much treatable.

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How is thyroid cancer diagnosed?

Query: Hi doctor, I am a 41 year old male. My recent ultrasound of thyroid revealed multiple bilateral ganglion formation in area IV. The most prominent was 11 x 8 mm diameter in lower right cervical area. It was mentioned homogeneous thyroid. My doctor suggests clinical follow up due to the number of gang...  Read Full »


Dr. Sumit Srivastava

Answer: Hi, Welcome to icliniq.com. Homogeneous thyroid usually suggests that gland is uniform in consistency meaning it is mostly benign. Thyroid nodules are fairly common; more so in women and the majority up to 95 % are benign. If you do not have major risk factors for thyroid cancer such as p...  Read Full »

Is thyroidectomy recommended for inconclusive thyroid cancer?

Query: Hi doctor, A year ago, I got a biopsy for two nodules in thyroid. The result for one was benign and the other inconclusive. This year I went back to a different doctor to redo my indeterminate biopsy. She advised me do for both again, because through ultrasound they look angry or vicious. In my righ...  Read Full »


Dr. Sadaf Mustafa

Answer: Hello, Welcome to icliniq.com. In this situation the most important fact would be to know whether there is a family history of thyroid cancer and which type. Not all thyroid cancers are the same; some are more aggressive that the others. Sorry, I was still trying to understand if the nodu...  Read Full »

Is it normal to have a neck dissection just by suspicion of malignancy?

Query: Hi doctor, I have 4 enlarged cervical lymph nodes in my neck. Two are cystic and have calcification inside. There are also 3 small nodules on my thyroid. Two are about 2 mm and one is 6 mm. All blood and thyroid tests came back normal. Full body PET-CT showed no abnormal activity in thyroid or lymp...  Read Full »


Dr. Pooja Pardhi

Answer: Hi, Welcome to icliniq.com. I have gone through your query and can understand your health concern. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common type of thyroid cancer which if detected in early stage has good prognosis. It spreads locally mostly to adjacent structures including lymph nodes. Smal...  Read Full »

Is there any alternative to bronchoscopy to get tissue for testing cancer?

Query: Hello doctor, I have a family friend that recently was admitted to hospital for shortness of breath. She was advised that after several examinations that she has a form of cancer. The information that we were provided with was that they were unable to ascertain where or how severe the cancer was. S...  Read Full »


Dr. Sumit Srivastava

Answer: Hi, Welcome to icliniq.com. Confirmation of any form of cancer is by biopsy only when the malignant cells are visualized under a microscope and reported to be positive. Rest of the radiological test like HRCT and MRI are highly sensitive but not specific. I am assuming that the cancer was either d...  Read Full »

Do lumps in the throat indicate malignancy?

Query: Hi doctor, I felt two lumps in my throat next to my thyroid, so I was sent for a thyroid and lymph node ultrasound. For over a year, my symptoms, like fatigue, sweating, lack of concentration, etc., have slowly worsened. Is there any indication of a potential malignancy? Can you please review my re...  Read Full »


Dr. Vivek Chail

Answer: Hi, Welcome to icliniq.com. I have seen your reports (attachment removed to protect patient identity). There is a dark area in the right lobe of the thyroid, of which I am concerned. Usually, thyroid nodules are of different types, and cancer cannot always be predicted from an ultrasound scan. ...  Read Full »

Can tuberculosis infect organs other than the lungs?

Query: Hello doctor, My recent chest x-ray showed some suspicious infiltrates in the lung. I am currently under thyroid cancer treatment. I got two CT scans done for both neck and chest. I have attached both reports here. Please help me in clarifying few terms which I did not follow. I would like to know, ...  Read Full »


Dr. Amol Kumar Wasudeorao Diwan

Answer: Hello, Welcome to icliniq.com.  I went through both your CT scan reports (attachment removed to protect patient identity). According to your CT report, there is no defect in the lungs. It only shows collapse in certain parts. As you have mentioned you are currently under treatment for thyroid canc...  Read Full »

Kindly explain my attached thyroid FNA report.

Query: Hi doctor, Please find the attachments of my thyroid FNA report. The result showed suspicious of malignancy. I hope you explain to me further. Thanks in advance.  Read Full »


Dr. Prakash H. Muddegowda

Answer: Hi, Welcome to icliniq.com. Based on your query and attached reports (attachment removed to protect patient identity), my opinion is as follows: Yes, the report does say suspicious for malignancy. When sometimes, we are not 100% sure or if there is overlap with benign or normal findings, we do repor...  Read Full »

What is cauterized tumor?

Query: Hi doctor, Could you answer from my pathology report whether the tumor encapsulated or nonencapsulated? Does it show positive margin or free margin? Could you explain me the findings in detail? Thanks in advance.  Read Full »


Dr. Prakash H. Muddegowda

Answer: Hi, Welcome to icliniq.com. Hope this report finds you in good health. Based on your query, my opinion is as follows: In the report (attachment removed to protect patient identity), there is no mention of an encapsulation. Usually in classical papillary carcinoma as you had, there is no capsule...  Read Full »

Is adenoma related to thyroid cancer?

Query: Hello doctor, Before 20 years I had total thyroidectomy for follicular and papillary thyroid cancer. I also had three surgeries to remove benign lymph nodes. My levels had been pretty steady until the last one and a half year. I am post menopausal. I am now with the highest TSH value of 13.1. I did ...  Read Full »


Dr. Geetha Priyadarsini Kamminana

Answer: Hi, Welcome to icliniq.com. Following total thyroidectomy, you will be kept on lifelong thyroid replacement therapy and if the therapy is inadequate TSH levels will rise. As long-term monitoring and to check the recurrence, the measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin and ant...  Read Full »

How is papillary thyroid carcinoma treated?

Query: Hello doctor, My mom has thyroid papillary carcinoma. Five months back she got a surgery in both sides of her thyroid gland. What is the best treatment for this? Please guide.  Read Full »


Dr. Sumit Srivastava

Answer: Hi, Welcome to icliniq.com. Sorry to hear about your mother's state. The protocol of treatment of papillary carcinoma of thyroid is total thyroidectomy followed by therapeutic radioactive Iodine therapy. Radioactive Iodine is given to detect and eradicate any residual tumor left after surgery. Resi...  Read Full »

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