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HomeHealth articlesenamel hypoplasiaWhat Is Enamel Hypoplasia and How Is It Linked to Dental Caries?

Relation Between Enamel Hypoplasia and Dental Caries

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Enamel hypoplasia is due to incomplete or defective formation in the organic matrix, which forms the first layer of the tooth. Read the article to know more.

Medically reviewed by

Dr. Shikha Vijayvargia

Published At September 21, 2022
Reviewed AtAugust 2, 2023

Introduction:

Enamel hypoplasia is said to be caused by a disturbance in forming the organic enamel matrix that makes up the enamel or the white layer. It is clinically visible as specific enamel defects. These lesions are certain deep areas within the enamel susceptible to tooth decay. They also hold a significant value for being responsible for many dental caries lesions in children and young adults.

How Is Enamel Hypoplasia Developed?

Upon dental examination, the disturbances in the enamel matrix can be seen with the naked eye as enamel surface grooves, cracks, or depressions, which is a characteristic and diagnostic feature of this condition. Also, during the evaluation, these teeth may appear aesthetically compromised. Enamel hypoplasia may be complex to restore because most deep defects within the mineralized enamel structure are difficult to approach with minimal invasion.

Defective enamel sites may be either called hypoplasia lesions or hypo calcification lesions. These deep invasive defects create a locally suitable environment for the adhesion and subsequent colonization by cariogenic bacteria. The pathology of dental carious lesions linked to enamel hypoplasia is because the bacteria retained at the base of these defects come into eventual contact with the exposed dentin layer (the second layer of the tooth after enamel). This leads to a more rapid progression of dental caries on the defective sites. In addition, enamel disorders that would occur during either the stages of enamel development or enamel maturation may reduce the amount or thickness of the enamel matrix. This results in white spots, tiny grooves, depressions, or even fissures within the enamel surface.

Dental enamel defects have thus been associated mainly with a broad spectrum of aetiologic factors. These factors are further categorized into genetic, epigenetic, systemic, environmental factors, and local disturbances that hamper enamel matrix formation. These disturbances that interfere during the phase of initial enamel formation impact the enamel quality and the quantity that will form the future tooth structure. According to dental research, the amelogenesis phase of tooth formation may be highly affected in genetic cases of enamel hypoplasia and eventually by the duration of the disturbance that interferes with the ameloblast stimulus of tooth formation.

How Is Enamel Hypoplasia Linked With Dental Caries?

Defective enamel usually has a higher level of acid solubility than healthy normal enamel and would be considered more susceptible to bacterial invasion and eventual dental caries formation. The association between enamel hypoplasia and dental caries is now being researched or reported in several cross-sectional studies worldwide. In the recent analysis of several multivariable regression models, researchers agree or are suggestive of the fact that enamel hypoplasia lesions are indeed good predictors of the individual developing dental carious lesions later. Enamel hypoplasia may make the tooth more prone to dental caries and be a systemic indicator of general health related to substandard or poor nutrition and acute or chronic childhood infections acquired in an individual's life. Enamel hypoplasia lesions give the dentist scope to predict the dental caries risk of the individual. The dentist may also examine these lesions or the affected teeth for hypoplasia right after the tooth eruption and before any such carious lesions develop.Research thus establishes a close link between such systemic negative early life experiences that happen during enamel formation in both primary and permanent dentition cases in children or young adults that may be seen manifesting collectively as hypoplasia lesions of the enamel that makes or predisposes the child to an even further risk for dental caries.

What Are the Risk Factors Associated With This Condition?

Risk factors such as particular lifestyle and other accessory factors during a child's growth phase include:

  • Fluoride water concentration of a home water source.

  • Exposure to other fluorides.

  • Sugar, candy, or soda intake.

  • Oral hygiene of the individual and their brushing frequency in a day.

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Enamel Hypoplasia?

Enamel hypoplasia is a multicausative condition triggered by local or systemic diseases, certain genetic disorders, trauma, pulp infections, or infections in the primary or deciduous dentition. The irregularities present in these hypoplasia lesions (because of their provision to favorable conditions for plaque retention and early development of caries lesions) may be clinically categorized as:

  • Deep progressive or characteristic pit fissure or crack within the enamel and the dentin.

  • An irregular wearing out of the tooth structure.

  • Diminishing enamel luster or eroded dental surfaces along with dental caries.

  • The loss of tooth microanatomy also clearly impacts the color, morphology, and tooth enamel texture of teeth.

Dental enamel hypoplasia should be clinically distinguished from fluorosis of the enamel (which has characteristic enamel bands due to excess fluoride deposition).

How Is Enamel Hypoplasia Managed?

Various treatment protocols would be recommended by your dentist based on the involvement and the severity of enamel lesions. Conservative modern-day dental approaches include:

  • Microabrasion procedures of enamel and conservative aesthetic restorations followed by dental whitening to restore the esthetic efficiency or look of the individual.

  • Composite resin restorations are an excellent source for reproducing the natural tooth appearance and contour to improve the aesthetic outcome or patient expectations.

Conclusion:

To conclude, the condition of enamel hypoplasia is a complex clinical entity that requires the dentist to re-establish the anatomical harmony, form, function, and aesthetics of the affected teeth to restore patient self-esteem and expectations for their social and psychological benefit.

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Dr. Achanta Krishna Swaroop
Dr. Achanta Krishna Swaroop

Dentistry

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dental cariesenamel hypoplasia
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