Emotional and Mental Health

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Written by
Dr. Vandana Patidar
and medically reviewed by iCliniq medical review team.

Published on Dec 28, 2018   -  3 min read

Abstract

Abstract

OCD is a common illness, with varying severity. It is caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. Treatment includes therapy and medicines. If not treated in time, OCD may progress further and can lead to secondary depression.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Sometimes, it happens with that we feel our hands are dirty and not washed properly. So, we wash our hands twice over. At times, we have negative thoughts and keep thinking about it repeatedly, or we check the door lock or gas two to three times. But then, we forget about it later and move ahead.

For some people, however, this kind of thinking or behavior becomes chronic and long-lasting and often increases with time. They are then said to be suffering from an illness called obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

What is OCD?

It is a common but debilitating disorder. It has a widespread prevalence of two to three percent in the general population. Both males and females can suffer from this illness. In this condition, the person can have recurrent, absurd, irrational, uncontrollable, anxiety-provoking thoughts or images. It usually leads to a compulsive act and the anxiety related to thoughts and images settles with the compulsive acts.

For example, as mentioned, the person can have repeated thoughts of their hands being dirty (obsession). This can make them wash their hands repeatedly (compulsion). Otherwise, they will continue to feel anxious.

Thoughts and doubts that the door of the house is not locked properly can make them check it again and again.

Some people have a counting compulsion associated with illogical reasoning like if I do not count till 10 before doing a certain act, or if I would not do a certain act like reading 10 times, then something bad will happen to my family members.

What Are the Symptoms of OCD?

Obessesions

  1. Fear of contamination (dirt, germs).
  2. Doubts regarding locks, gas stoves, switches.
  3. Unwanted, taboo, and forbidden thoughts involving sex or religion.
  4. An excessive concern of symmetry, order, and arrangement.
  5. Aggressive or fear of performing some unwanted acts.

Compulsions

  1. Cleaning - repeatedly washing hands, clothes, utensils, bathing for long hours.
  2. Repeatedly checking locks, gas stoves and switches.
  3. Sorting and arranging household items or whatever is there in the vicinity.
  4. Mental compulsions like counting in mind before doing or while doing any task.

What Causes OCD?

Genetics, heredity, and stressful life events can precipitate OCD or worsen it.

In our brain, there are various chemicals which control our thoughts, mood, and behavior like serotonin. Alteration of this chemical is said to be responsible for alteration of thoughts and compulsive behavior.

Who Is at Risk for OCD?

It usually starts in adolescents and is commonly diagnosed during adulthood. Sometimes, it is also seen in children.

Having a blood relative with this condition increases the chance of developing this illness.

Stress in life not only increases the chances of developing OCD, but also worsens the preexisting illness.

How Does OCD Affect Life of Patients?

OCD causes impairment in the quality of life of the person and his family members. It impairs their ability to enjoy things in life.

Their academic, as well as professional life, suffers.

They end up wasting time in obsessions and compulsions, which create significant distress and irritability.

Inability to control one’s behavior and thoughts bring helplessness and hopelessness. Family members often do not understand the problem and create constant pressure on the person to control himself, which in fact, increases the stress and worsens the problem.

The person starts believing that it is his mistake or weakness that he cannot control his thoughts and behavior, and this can lead to depression.

How to Recognize the Signs?

A loved one may be suffering from OCD if:

  • They are doing things repeatedly.
  • Their concern for minor details increases suddenly.
  • They take too long to complete simple tasks.
  • They feel anxiety, distress, and irritability repeatedly in the same situation.
  • Their relationships, work, and academics are suffering.

Why Is Treatment Essential?

OCD is not a self-limiting condition. It usually progresses and worsens with time if not treated. Hence, the timely institution of treatment is very much essential.

Some people waste a significant amount of precious time from their career, future, and relationships and visit a psychiatrist very late as they assume the problem will settle with time but this does not happen eventually.

As the problem becomes chronic, it becomes resistant, and treatment takes time.

Treatment Of OCD

  1. Medicines.
  2. Therapy called exposure-response prevention.

One can be started on either medicines/therapy or a combination of both.

Mild cases can be treated with exposure and response prevention therapy alone, while moderate to severe cases need to be managed with medicines as well as exposure and response prevention therapy.

How Can You Help a Family Member or Friend Who Has This Illness?

Support them by taking them to a mental health professional.

Do not force them to control themselves. Instead, you can try to understand their problem.

Accompany them or check if they are consulting their doctor regularly.

If they are on medicines, look for compliance.

Last reviewed at:
28 Dec 2018  -  3 min read

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Related Questions & Answers


Is repetition of image popping into mind a symptom of OCD?

Query: Hi doctor, I am a 25 year old male. I am scared of turning into a gay or homosexual. In the past, I had senseless and intrusive images popping in my head that I am kissing a guy whenever I used to be with my male friends. I never felt an attraction towards any guy. It happened six years before, but ...  Read Full >>


Dr. Kumarshri Shriniwas Saraswat
Psychologist Counsellor

Answer: Hello, Welcome to icliniq.com. After analyzing your current complaint and taking into consideration your previous history, I am of the opinion that your current symptom is also a symptom of Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). An obsession is an automatic, repetitive, intrusive and senseless thought...  Read Full

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