Men's Health

Prostate Cancer, a nightmare

Written by Dr. Ahmed Elhaged and medically reviewed by iCliniq medical review team.

 
Image: Prostate Cancer, a nightmare

Prostate is a gland within men's body structure which is important for the vital activity of sperms.

Prostate can be a nightmare over the age of 50 years, as this gland can become a deadly cancerous organ that will lead to death.

Researches indicate that prostate cancer is genetically inherited, and the risk increases when father or brother has the disease.

So, if you have a genetic relation to this disease, you should check yourself at the age of 45 years.

Some researchers have found that capsicum and black pepper may worsen this disease

Diseases of Prostate:

The most common diseases of prostate are prostatitis and prostate tumour.

Prostatitis is the inflammation of prostate gland.

Tumour of prostate can be a benign or malignant one.

Stages of Prostate Cancer:

Prostate cancer passes roughly through four stages:

  • The first one is when the tumour is so small and at it's concised around itself.
  • The second stage is when the tumour cells begin to grow and reproduce more. But still it is concised to the same place.
  • The third stage is when the tumour begins to grow outside the prostatic outline. At this stage, the prostate outline becomes irregular.
  • The fourth stage is when the tumour cells spread outside, to the nearby bones (for example: pelvic bone) and lymph nodes. This spread from the primary site of the tumour to the other bones and lymph nodes is termed as metastasis.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of prostate cancer are:

  • Difficulty in urination.
  • Feeling pain during urination.
  • Blood in urine.
  • Increased urination at the night.
  • Bone pain, in cases of metastasis.

Methods of Investigation:

We have to determine an indicator that will direct us towards the right place, which is the PSA.

PSA (Prostate-Specific Antigen) is a tumour marker, the increase of which will indicate cancer in our body.

TRUS (Transrectal Ultrasound) scan is used to detect the enlargment of prostate, through the anal opening. A specimen of the prostate can also be taken by this method.

The specimen can be examined in a well equipped pathological lab to determine if the cells are cancerous.

The tumour cells will be irregular, disoriented and non-functional and grow rapidly.

Treatment:

Early detected prostate cancer can be totally cured by medications.

In early stages, when prostate cancer is still in stage one, urologists prefer surgical removal of the prostate (prostatectomy).

Prostate can be removed by laser or radical prostatectomy (surgical removal of the prostate along with the removal of some tissue around it).

In the last stage, castration is done. Castration by surgically removing the testicles so as to stop the secretion of the male hormone (testosterone). This process is called orchiectomy. This in turn stops or delays the growth of cancerous cells.

Prostate cancer is hormone sensitive because it grows due to the response of male hormone (testosterone). Therefore, hormonal therapy is a must in metastatic stage.

After treatment with hormonal therapy, PSA becomes low for a certain period of time.

CRPC (Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer) can be treated by chemotherapy.

Last reviewed at: 07.Sep.2018

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