Rosacea is a skin condition that commonly occurs on the face due to enlargement of the blood vessels, but it is not contagious. Please read the article to know its causes, symptoms, risk factors, types, and treatment.
Rosacea is the chronic inflammatory condition that can cause redness or noticeable blood vessels in the face. Rosacea does not get cured on its own, it can go into remission, and there can be time lapses between the flare-ups. If not treated, it can cause permanent damage to the skin. The damage can be endless, like redness of the skin due to long-lasting blushing, the appearance of spider veins in the cheeks, and may affect the patient's eyes. Rosacea is not a contagious disease. It can persist for an extended period in any individual, but the severity tends to fluctuate. Rosacea can affect the cheeks, chin, forehead, and nose, and it is discriminated by persistent redness caused by dilated blood vessels, pus-filled spots, and small bumps similar to acne. There can also be painful inflammation of the outside of the eyes and eyelids.
The cause for rosacea is unknown, but it can be a combination of environmental and hereditary factors, not due to poor hygiene. The common factors that can worsen the condition are:
Hot drinks and spicy foods.
Sunlight or wind.
Red wine and other alcoholic beverages.
Drugs like blood pressure medications can dilate blood vessels.
Various cosmetic products.
Microscopic skin mites that carry Bacteria.
The signs and symptoms of rosacea are:
Bumpy texture to the skin.
Skin begins to thicken, especially widespread on the nose. When the skin on the nose thickens, it is called rhinophyma.
Pores look large.
The skin may swell on the chin, forehead, cheeks, and ears.
Broken blood vessels may be visible on the nose and cheeks.
Red patches on the face, particularly on the central part of the face.
Small, red, and pus-filled bumps.
A hot and tender feeling of the skin.
Dryness or irritation in the eyes.
Reddened and swollen eyelids.
Enlarged nose, often seen in men.
Problems with seeing.
Watery eyes and blood shots.
Broken blood vessels on eyelids.
Eyes that feel gritty.
Cysts on eyes.
Dry or itchy eyes.
Stinging or burning sensation in the eyes.
Eyes that are sensitive to light.
The types of rosacea are:
Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea is characterized by redness on the face.
Phymatous Rosacea is associated with the thickening of the skin of the nose.
Papulopustular rosacea usually occurs in middle-aged women and is associated with acne-like breakouts.
Ocular rosacea usually shows symptoms in the eye area.
The risk factors for developing rosacea are:
In gender, women can develop rosacea more frequently than men, but men can also develop severe rosacea.
History of Acne.
For diagnosis of rosacea, the doctor usually relies on the signs and symptoms of the patient. Skin biopsy can rule out skin conditions like Psoriasis, lupus, or eczema because the signs and symptoms of these conditions are similar to that of rosacea.
The differential diagnosis for rosacea are:
Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition that occurs due to any block in the hair follicles due to bacteria, dead skin cells, or oil. It can result in blemishes on the skin like blackheads, whiteheads, pimples, or cysts.
Lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease resulting in the joints' erosion, skin rash, and even kidney failure.
Contact dermatitis is the inflammation of the skin caused due to contact with any substances.
Seborrheic dermatitis is a condition that affects the scalp and results in scaly skin.
Perioral dermatitis is the inflammatory rashes occurring on the skin around the mouth.
An eczema is a group of skin conditions causing red and itchy rashes.
Carcinoid syndrome occurs in a patient with a carcinoid tumor.
Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition resulting in scaly, itchy areas in patches.
The treatment for rosacea mainly focuses on controlling the signs and symptoms. It can be the combination of prescription drugs and good skincare. Drugs like Metronidazole, Azelaic acid, and Ivermectin may have less effect on skin color, but they will control pimples.
Ivermectin 1 % for mild to moderate rosacea, which has an anti-inflammatory effect, kills the Demodex mites that produce pustules to activate the local immune response.
Cream or gel such as Brimonidine and Oxymetazoline reduces redness by constricting the blood vessels. The patient may see the results within 12 hours of use.
Oral antibiotics like Doxycycline for moderate to severe rosacea, which has pimples and bumps.
Isotretinoin is a powerful drug that acts against acne and cleans up all the rosacea's acne-like lesions.
Laser or other light-based therapies may decrease the skin's redness due to enlarged blood vessels. Repeated treatments are required to get a better result.
The alternative method of treating rosacea are:
Facial massage to reduce the swelling and inflammation of the face.
Having caffeine reduces the risk of developing rosacea.
Laurelwood, emu oil, and oregano oil are used to treat rosacea.
Rosacea cannot be prevented, but we can avoid the triggering factors to maintain the remission by improving the lifestyle and environmental factors. The triggering factors may include:
Protect your skin from the sun.
Avoid overheating even during exercise.
Simplify your skincare routine.
Use a mild cleanser for washing the face.
Choose mild foods.
Choose for cold beverages.
Protect your face from wind and cold.
Foods to be avoided when you have rosacea are:
In any form, heat is a common triggering factor of rosacea outbreaks; therefore, eliminating heated up beverages such as tea, hot cider, coffee, and hot chocolate is essential.
Foods that contain histamine.
The causes of rosacea are unknown, and scientists found that it can be due to the following:
- Hereditary factors - Family members of rosacea.
- Environmental factors - Overexposure to sunlight.
- Bacillus oleronius - Rosacea reacts to this bacterium, which makes the immune system overreact.
- H.pylori infection - Patients who have rosacea have had H.pylori infections.
- Demodex - This mite loves to live in cheeks and nose and is found in many people who have rosacea.
- Cathelicidin - This is a protein that may cause redness and swelling in rosacea.
- Hot drinks and spicy foods - Flares up rosacea.
- For mild to moderate rosacea, topical medications in the form of cream or gel can be applied to the affected areas.
- Oral antibiotics such as Doxycycline help with bumps and pimples for moderate to severe rosacea.
- Metronidazole reduces inflammation and is commonly used in the treatment of rosacea. It can be applied in the form of cream, gel, or lotion twice a day.
- Oral acne drug.
Rosacea will not disappear, but it can show a reduction and lapses in flare-ups. If it is left untreated, it can cause serious damage and can affect the patient's eyes and skin permanently.
Rosacea can be identified with,
- Frequent flushing.
- Facial redness.
- Blood vessels on the nose and cheek swell and become visible.
- Swollen red bumps on the face.
- Pimples on the face resembling acne.
The foods that trigger rosacea are,
- Hot sauce.
- Hot cider.
- Hot chocolate.
- Citrus fruits.
The four different types of rosacea are,
- Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea - This type is associated with facial redness, visible blood vessels, and flushing.
- Papulopustular rosacea - This type is associated with acne breakouts.
- Phymatous rosacea - This type is associated with the thickening of the skin on the nose.
- Ocular rosacea - This type is associated with symptoms in the eye area.
Drinking water helps to limit the symptoms of rosacea as our body is made up of plenty of water which helps to flush out the toxins in the body and skin.
Rosacea can be mistaken for several other skin conditions like,
- Contact dermatitis.
- Lupus erythematosus.
- Seborrheic dermatitis.
- Steroid rosacea.
It is best to wash the face with mild facial cleansers recommended by the dermatologists and do not use products that contain menthol, alcohol, witch hazel, eucalyptus oil, camphor, peppermint, and glycolic acid.
As rosacea has a variable course, it is unpredictable in everyone and worsens with age, especially if untreated. So it is important to diagnose at its earlier stage as it may progress from early to middle stage within a year.
It is said that vitamin B3 triggers rosacea by dilating the blood vessels leading to flushing, facial redness, and flares up the rosacea. Also, people with rosacea have higher vitamin D levels, so it is important to talk to the doctor before taking any supplements.
Laser treatment helps to reduce rosacea by eliminating the visible blood vessels on the face. It reduces flushing, redness and improves the texture of the skin.
Last reviewed at:
10 Feb 2021 - 5 min read
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