Cerebrospinal fluid is a transparent fluid that encloses the brain and spinal cord. It provides cushioning effect and prevents injury. It also helps in nutrient delivery and aids in waste removal. Analysis of the CSF helps diagnose infectious diseases of the brain and spinal cord, autoimmune disorders, bleeding disorders in the brain, and brain tumors.

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Which is a better treatment for NPH, shunt surgery or CSF drainage?

Query: Hello doctor, My 76 year old mother was recently diagnosed with normal pressure hydrocephalus. She is having trouble walking. She can walk only three to four steps at a time. She has been having this difficulty since a month now. She is currently not on any medication for this or for any other issu...  Read Full »

Dr. Chandan Mohanty

Answer: Hello, Welcome to icliniq.com. I am sorry to hear about your mother. I have seen her MRI reports (attachment removed to protect patient identity). Going for lumbar puncture (LP) drainage, and then checking for a clinical improvement, before a shunt, has a better chance of determining the overall suc...  Read Full »

Why did my doctor ask for a signature before undergoing LP?

Query: Hi doctor,My question regarding the LP test of the backbone. Why the doctors want my signature for this test? Is there any major risk or side effect in this procedure? The test showed 5 x 5 rings in the brain and rest everything is normal. There is no previous medical history other than a headache,...  Read Full »

Dr. Hitesh Kumar

Answer: Hi, Welcome to icliniq.com. Lumbar puncture is done to collect CSF (cerebrospinal fluid, the fluid surrounding the whole brain). Possibly they will send that fluid for tests to search the reason for rings in the brain. Ring enhancing lesions in the brain can be due to many reasons like tuberculosi...  Read Full »

What is mega cisterna magna, and what is the significance?

Query: Hi doctor, Can you please review my MRI scan and check if everything is normal, and is there anything to worry about?  Read Full »

Dr. Hitesh Kumar

Answer: Hello, Welcome to icliniq.com. Your MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) report (attachment removed to protect the patient's identity) shows most structures visible within normal limits except incident mega cisterna magna. Cisterna magna is a normal CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) filled space on the...  Read Full »

My mom's health got worse after anaplastic astrocytoma treatment. Why?

Query: Hi doctor, Four years ago, my mom was diagnosed with an anaplastic astrocytoma in the right parieto-occipital region. She underwent radiotherapy and chemotherapy with Temozolomide, which shrunk the lesion. Over the years her mobility has declined significantly. She can only walk a few steps with sup...  Read Full »

Dr. Rajyaguru

Answer: Hi, Welcome to icliniq.com. I understand your mom's case. The most likely reason for her loss of consciousness would be a microscopic spread of the tumor to the areas of the brain which control consciousness. The spread cannot be detected on an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). The only way to diagn...  Read Full »

Can SSPE (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis) be cured?

Query: Hi doctor, I am the father of a 5-year-old daughter. She is a very energetic, lively, talkative, and intelligent girl. Two months back, we noticed she frequently falls while running and having a minor issue with her studies. We consulted a pediatrician, and he suggested some vitamins. However, the ...  Read Full »

Dr. Upendra K Shah

Answer: Hi, Welcome to icliniq.com. By inspecting the reports (attachments removed to protect patient's identity), it seems this is a case of SSPE (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis) due to measles, a kind of virus that is slowly growing in the brain causing all these symptoms. Unfortunately, there is n...  Read Full »

What does arachnoid granulation on an MRI scan mean?

Query: Hi doctor, I had an MRI scan completed on my head privately due to having headaches, and I have received the report and do not understand it, and it is really worrying me. Report: No signal abnormality. No space-occupying lesion. Adjacent to the right transverse sinus, there is a focal lesion o...  Read Full »

Dr. Aida Quka

Answer: Hi, Welcome to icliniq.com. I read your MRI report carefully and would explain that it shows nothing serious, just a mild birth abnormality, some brain tissue in the wrong place (misplaced during brain formation). But you have been living with that for your entire life, and it does not cause any s...  Read Full »

Why is there constant headache for over five years?

Query: Hello doctor, I have been suffering from a constant headache for over five years. An MRI done roughly 2 to 3 years ago showed pineal cysts but the report stated they were of no significance. Since then further investigations have been done to find the cause of my headaches. A neurologist I was seei...  Read Full »

Dr. Prakashkumar P Bhatt

Answer: Hello, Welcome to icliniq.com. I am fine. Through your case summary, you are suffering from persistent daily headache which is disabling your daily activities. You were completely evaluated for your headache initially where MRV showed left transverse sinus stenosis 2 to 3 years ago. CFS pressure w...  Read Full »

Could you please explain MRI brain and CSF studies related to NPH?

Query: Hello doctor,Can you please give the diagnosis of the uploaded MRI brain and CSF studies with a detailed report? Please advise on the action plan as to how to get the CSF findings treated. The MRI report is enclosed. Does the enclosed report co-relate with your findings? The MRI report CSF studies r...  Read Full »

Dr. Vivek Chail

Answer: Hi, Welcome back to icliniq.com. The findings in the report and the images are matching and acceptable (attachment removed to protect patient identity). The term NPH is usually applied in cases where there is abnormal CSF hyperdynamic circulation with gait problems or without gait problems if inco...  Read Full »

Can I get Naegleria fowleri infection from washing my nose with tap water?

Query: Hello doctor, I am in a subtropical state. As I was washing my face a few days ago, I accidentally got some tap water up my nose. Vaguely aware that there might be concerns about the Naegleria fowleri ameba down here, I panicked and then took some bottled mineral water and tried to rinse my nose wi...  Read Full »

Dr. Kumar Ashutosh

Answer: Hello, Welcome to icliniq.com.  Firstly, do not worry at all. Please let me know exactly how many days have passed after the exposure. Also, know these facts: Naegleria infection is very rare. Less than 200 cases are reported till date. It spreads very rapidly and symptoms appear within five to 10...  Read Full »

I have a pain near the tailbone after a blood patch was performed. Please help.

Query: Hello doctor, I had a spinal tap done two weeks ago, and a blood patch three days later. The blood patch worked but, I still get headaches and do not feel well at all. I have a swollen bump on my tailbone that hurts. I saw my doctor who did not seem too sure about it but, said there did not seem to ...  Read Full »

Dr. Vansh Priya

Answer: Hello,Welcome to icliniq.com.You most probably experienced a post dural puncture headache (PDPH), for which you were administered an epidural blood patch.Your signs and symptoms are more suggestive of a meningeal irritation due to some infection. I would suggest you consult a neurophysician for the...  Read Full »

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