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Going by the details you have provided you have euthyroid. This means that you do have normal TSH with normal T4 and T3.
The most common cause is autoimmune thyroid disease, which is confirmed by positive anti-TPO (anti-Thyroid Peroxidase) antibodies. Positive anti-TPO means you have these antibodies in your body which act against the thyroid cells. Most often this is a progressive disease. As of today, we do not have treatment against autoimmunity. Therefore, we replace thyroid hormone in the form of Thyroxine.
With TSH near 10 and strongly positive antibodies, I suggest you get your TSH done after 6 weeks. If normal, there is nothing to worry. Apart from the destruction of thyroid cells, anti-TPO antibodies do not cause any other harm. Disease per se is harmless if TSH is kept normal. Keep track of TSH and treat it accordingly.
This will never affect your future, and you can continue your studies without fear of not becoming a surgeon. You will become a surgeon, all the best.