Login      Sign Up

High Blood Pressure: Things You Need To Know!!

Author: Dr. Pir Muhammad Siddique - Common Medical Conditions  

High Blood Pressure or Hypertension is a very common and serious condition which if untreated may lead to permanent and often fatal damage to various organs of the body including the heart, kidneys, brain and eyes. Hypertension means the pressure of the blood inside the blood vessels is higher than what it should be. A blood pressure (BP) of more than 139/89 mmHg is regarded to be higher than normal range.

How to Diagnose?

A high BP reading checked randomly on at least two occasions while the person is at rest is needed to make a diagnosis of hypertension. In almost 90-95% of the cases the cause of high blood pressure is not known, this is called essential/idiopathic hypertension. Remaining 5-10% of the cases are of secondary hypertension in which an underlying cause is identifiable.

Signs and Symptoms:

Hypertension is called a silent killer as there are no distinct signs or symptoms of this disease. It is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. End organ damage may manifest as heart attack, stroke, CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease), or hypertensive retinopathy. A vast majority of people are diagnosed incidentally on routine physical checkup.

The symptoms manifest only later in life when there has been irreversible organ damage. It is important to start controlling blood pressure as soon as the diagnosis is made so as to prevent or at least slow the progression of organ damage. Co-morbid conditions such as diabetes mellitus accelerate the organ damage.

High pressure inside the blood vessels causes damage to the inner lining of vessels leading to erosion, deposition of calcium, cholesterol and inflammatory cells collectively. This process is called atherosclerosis. This narrows the lumen of blood vessels especially the coronary arteries predisposing the individual to angina and heart attack. Similar process in carotid arteries and cerebral arteries may predispose an individual to stroke.

Myths and Facts About Hypertension

Read this article to know the myths and facts about hypertension.

Management of Hypertension:

Goal of therapy is to bring blood pressure within normal range. A stepwise approach is applied. First step is lifestyle modifications which include:

  • Limiting dietary salt intake.
  • Smoking cessation.
  • Aerobic exercise at least 30 minutes a day, 5 times a week.
  • Maintaining BMI (Body Mass Index) between 20-25.
  • Reducing dietary fat content.
  • Increasing fruits and vegetables in diet.

These measures should be followed in all individuals with hypertension regardless of whether the decision has been made to implement drug therapy. Second step is giving medications to control blood pressure. Your doctor may prescribe medications according to the response to therapy. These medications are also given in a stepwise manner. Patient is started on one type of medicine usually a calcium channel blocker or an ACE inhibitor. Other medications like diuretics and beta blockers may be added depending upon the response to treatment until optimum BP control is achieved. Usually these medications are taken throughout life to maintain blood pressure in normal limits.

For secondary hypertension when a cause is identified the treatment is aimed at addressing the cause. Some of the causes of secondary hypertension are renal artery stenosis, coarctation of aorta, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism and tumor of the adrenal cortex.


If uncontrolled, high blood pressure has a poor prognosis with high risk of stroke and heart disease, the two leading causes of death worldwide. However, if blood pressure is well controlled and lifestyle modifications are implemented, the prognosis can be excellent with the risks decreased significantly.

Consult a cardiologist online for queries regarding elevated blood pressure --> https://www.icliniq.com/ask-a-doctor-online/cardiologist

Last reviewed at: 07.Sep.2018



Do you have a question on Hypertension or Blood Pressure?
* guaranteed answer within 4 hours.

Related Questions & Answers

Hypertension and Skipping Anti-Hypertensive Pills - A Small Step Towards a Big Mistake
Article Overview: This article tells about the misconceptions prevalent among people against having anti-hypertensive pills.  Read Article »
Dr. Saumya Mittal

Blood Pressure and Symptoms - A Gist : Blood pressure is basically the pressure faced by the walls of the blood vessels when the blood is ejected from the heart with a level of force. Under normal circumstances this force is essential for the blood to circulate well in the body. Raised blood pressur ...  Read Article »
Can CMV or herpes infection before or after birth affect pregnancy or child?
Query: Hello doctor, I am in 36th week of pregnancy. My last ultrasound was doppler happened at 34th week 5 days. I showed the pregnancy of 32 weeks 5 days with mild IUGR. Fetal weight 1885 grams. My gynecologist advised CBC, and Torch IgM, IgG tests. In the CBC test, total leucocyte count is 13300/cumm, ...  Read Full »
Dr. Ashwini Ekatpure
Obstetrician And Gynaecologist

Answer: Hi, Welcome to icliniq.com. Your baby growth is lagging behind. I need weekly no stress test and ultrasound with doppler every 10 days. Do the following things for baby's well being. Maintain daily baby kick count and note down between 9 AM to 9 PM. Blood pressure monitoring on an alternate day. U...  Read Full »
My blood pressure is erratic. Can you help ?
Query: Hello doctor, I am a 30 year old. Recently, I started having high blood pressure. It goes up and down a lot. At some times, it is 170/90, and at others, it is 130/80. Recently I have done a blood test, where my Hb was 10.52, cholesterol was 152, triglyceride was 165, HDL 28 and LDL was 91. The other...  Read Full »
Dr. Amiya Kumar Chattopadhyay

Answer: Hello, Welcome to icliniq.com. Your pulse rate is high. Please do a free T4, T3, and TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) test. For your BP (blood pressure), you can take Met XL (Metoprolol) 50 one tablet, once daily at around 8 AM and tablet Stamlo (Amlodipine) 5 one tablet at around 5 PM. You...  Read Full »
Hypertension - How Aware Are You?
Article Overview: This simple quiz tests your knowledge and teaches you hypertension facts.  Read Article »
Dr. Saumya Mittal

Please check the answer key and get to know how much you know about hypertension based on your score. 0-3: You need to learn more 3-6: A little more knowledge is good for health > 6: Keep updating yourself Question 1: Hypertensive patients should avoid exercise a) True b) False Answer: ...  Read Article »
How should I control my BP in winter?
Query: Hi doctor, I am a 35 year old male. In winter, My BP increases to around 160/105 mmHg; however, in summer, it is normal at 130/90 mmHg. I do not feel any problems yet such as headache. Now, I feel some shortness of breath. How should I control my BP in winter season? I have already started taking le...  Read Full »
Dr. Naresh Kumar Monigari
Internal Medicine Physician

Answer: Hello, Welcome to icliniq.com. I had gone through all the details posted. Kindly confirm whether your blood pressure is raised during winter by repeated BP recordings. Before BP recording you should not take any hit beverage, smoking and be calm. If you have any doubt, then go for ambulatory b...  Read Full »

Ask a Doctor Online

* guaranteed answer within 4 hours

Related Tags