Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) - Symptoms |Treatment and Prevention
Kidney and Urologic Diseases Data Verified

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) - Symptoms , Treatment and Prevention

Written by
Dr. Pir Muhammad Siddique
and medically reviewed by iCliniq medical review team.

Published on Sep 23, 2015 and last reviewed on Sep 15, 2023   -  2 min read


Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a common condition especially in women and it often remains undiagnosed and untreated. This article is aimed at providing basic knowledge about UTI, its symptoms and treatment.

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) - Symptoms , Treatment and Prevention

Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary tract consists of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and the urethra. Urine produced by the kidneys passes down the ureters and is stored in the urinary bladder until it is voided through the urethra.

Infection most commonly involves the lower urinary tract which includes the bladder (cystitis) and urethra (urethritis). Infection spreading up to the kidneys (pyelonephritis) can be a serious problem. Women are at an increased risk of developing UTI compared to men.

UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) typically is caused by bacteria entering the bladder through the urethra. E.coli (Escherichia coli) is the most common bacteria responsible for UTI. E.coli is normally found in the gut and may gain access to bladder especially in women because the short length of urethra and its close proximity to the anus makes it easy for bacteria to enter the bladder.

Sexual activity may also introduce bacteria into the bladder through the urethra. Once inside the bladder and/or urethra the bacteria multiply and cause signs and symptoms of UTI.

Symptoms of UTI Include

  • Frequent and insufficient urination.
  • Fever and chills.
  • Nausea or vomiting.
  • Change in the color or smell of urine.
  • Urgency to void.
  • Pain in lower abdomen or lower back, pain in the flanks.

If any of these symptoms appear you must consult a physician. It is pertinent to note that UTI may exist without overt signs and symptoms. So, mild fever without any symptoms especially in women should prompt a suspicion of UTI. A routine urine test will reveal the presence of infection. Your physician may also advise a Complete Blood Count (CBC) to see the severity of infection, a urine culture to determine antibiotic sensitivity and an ultrasound scan to visualize and rule out any source of obstruction or spread of infection to the kidneys.

Recurrent UTI in children may be caused by an anatomical defect which may require surgical intervention. Studies have shown that untreated recurrent UTI in children may lead to scarring of kidneys and eventually CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease).

Treatment and Prevention

Treatment involves a course of antibiotic usually taken for 5 days. Recurrent UTI may require extended course of antibiotics. Apart from that, drinking plenty of fluids, especially cranberry juice helps flush out the bacteria. Proper hygiene of the external urethral opening is important in prevention of UTI.


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can cause significant discomfort and inconvenience, but prompt recognition of symptoms, appropriate treatment, and preventive measures can greatly reduce the impact of these infections. By maintaining good hygiene practices, staying hydrated, and seeking medical attention when needed, individuals can take proactive steps to minimize the occurrence and severity of UTIs, promoting overall urinary health and well-being. Remember, early intervention and consistent preventive measures are key to mitigating the risk of UTIs and maintaining a healthy urinary system.

Frequently Asked Questions


What causes urinary tract infection?

Urinary tract infection is most commonly caused by the bacteria Escherichia coli (E.coli), which is found in the digestive tract. Bacteria like Chlamydia and Mycoplasma can cause urethritis (infection of the urethra), and not cystitis (infection of the bladder).


How does a male get rid of a urinary tract infection?

Treating urinary tract infection in men is more difficult. Depending on the cause of infection, antibiotics like Nitrofurantoin, Fluoroquinolones, or Aminoglycosides are prescribed. For fever, Paracetamol or Acetaminophen is given, and analgesics are prescribed to treat pain and burning while peeing.


Is a urinary tract infection curable?

Yes, UTI can be cured. With the right kind of antibiotic and painkiller, UTI can be cured.


Is it possible to control recurrent urinary tract infections?

Recurrent urinary tract infections carry the risk of kidney damage. Antibiotics and behavior modification usually help people who are prone to urinary tract infection. Some tips to prevent recurrent infections are urinating after sex, drinking plenty of water, avoid wearing tight-fitted underpants, wipe properly after urinating, and drinking cranberry juice.


Are urinary tract infections contagious?

UTI is not contagious and does not spread through sex.


What are urinary tract infection home remedies?

Home remedies for UTI are:
- Drinking plenty of water helps flush out bacteria from the body.
- Consume vitamin C rich food.
- Drink cranberry juice.
- Taking probiotic helps balance bacteria in your gut.


How do you know if you have a urinary tract infection?

Signs and symptoms of UTI are burning sensation on urination, frequent urination, frequent urge to urinate, cloudy or dark urine, pelvic pain, abdominal pain, fever, chills, and feeling of incomplete bladder emptying.


Will a UTI go away on its own?

It is possible that a UTI will go away on its own, but it not always the case. To prevent the spread of bacteria, it is best to take a course of antibiotics after consulting your doctor.


What happens if a UTI goes untreated for a week?

Untreated UTI can result in the spread of bacteria to one or both kidneys. This results in infection of the kidneys, which might result in permanent damage to kidney functions.


How much water should you drink with a UTI?

It has been found that drinking more than 2.2 liters of water every day helps prevent UTI. And drinking plenty of water during a UTI helps flush out bacteria.

Last reviewed at:
15 Sep 2023  -  2 min read




Comprehensive Medical Second Opinion.Submit your Case

Related Questions & Answers

A Patient's Guide to Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

Article Overview: Urinary tract infections are clinical bacterial infections involving the urinary system. Read the article to learn more. Read Article

Davie Wong
Davie Wong
HIV/AIDS Specialist

What Are Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections? Recurrent urinary tract infections are chronic urinary infections that either do not respond to treatment or keep recurring. In chronic urinary infections, the involvement of other organs of the urinary system is observed. The urinary system is made up of...  Read Article

What is the reason for red meatus and burning sensation during urination?

Query: Hi doctor, My meatus is red and has a small spot on one side. There is a constant burning sensation when I urinate. I am frequently urinating in small amounts. Recently, I had a DRE, and they told me that my prostate is enlarged. I have a foul smell from my penis. I never had this problem before. I...  Read Full »

Is it normal to have vaginal pain while urinating along with stomach and back pain?

Query: Hello doctor, I have pain in the inside of my vagina when I pee and lower back and stomach pain that comes and goes. Is this normal?  Read Full »

Popular Articles Most Popular Articles

Do you have a question on Urinary Tract Infection or Burning Sensation During Urination?

Ask a Doctor Online

* guaranteed answer within 4 hours.

Disclaimer: No content published on this website is intended to be a substitute for professional medical diagnosis, advice or treatment by a trained physician. Seek advice from your physician or other qualified healthcare providers with questions you may have regarding your symptoms and medical condition for a complete medical diagnosis. Do not delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice because of something you have read on this website. Read our Editorial Process to know how we create content for health articles and queries.