Kidney and Urologic Diseases

Urinary Tract Infection- a Brief Overview

Written by Dr. Pir Muhammad Siddique and medically reviewed by iCliniq medical review team.



Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary tract consists of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and the urethra. Urine produced by the kidneys passes down the ureters and is stored in the urinary bladder until it is voided through the urethra.

Infection most commonly involves the lower urinary tract which includes the bladder (cystitis) and urethra (urethritis). Infection spreading up to the kidneys (pyelonephritis) can be a serious problem. Women are at an increased risk of developing UTI compared to men.

UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) typically is caused by bacteria entering the bladder through the urethra. E.coli (Escherichia coli) is the most common bacteria responsible for UTI. E.coli is normally found in the gut and may gain access to bladder especially in women because the short length of urethra and its close proximity to the anus makes it easy for bacteria to enter the bladder.

Sexual activity may also introduce bacteria into the bladder through the urethra. Once inside the bladder and/or urethra the bacteria multiply and cause signs and symptoms of UTI.

Symptoms of UTI Include

  • Frequent and insufficient urination.
  • Fever and chills.
  • Nausea or vomiting.
  • Change in the color or smell of urine.
  • Urgency to void.
  • Pain in lower abdomen or lower back, pain in the flanks.

If any of these symptoms appear you must consult a physician. It is pertinent to note that UTI may exist without overt signs and symptoms. So, mild fever without any symptoms especially in women should prompt a suspicion of UTI. A routine urine test will reveal the presence of infection. Your physician may also advise a Complete Blood Count (CBC) to see the severity of infection, a urine culture to determine antibiotic sensitivity and an ultrasound scan to visualize and rule out any source of obstruction or spread of infection to the kidneys.

Recurrent UTI in children may be caused by an anatomical defect which may require surgical intervention. Studies have shown that untreated recurrent UTI in children may lead to scarring of kidneys and eventually CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease).

Treatment and Prevention

Treatment involves a course of antibiotic usually taken for 5 days. Recurrent UTI may require extended course of antibiotics. Apart from that, drinking plenty of fluids, especially cranberry juice helps flush out the bacteria. Proper hygiene of the external urethral opening is important in prevention of UTI.

Do not neglect UTI, consult a urologist online for help -->

Last reviewed at: 07.Sep.2018



Do you have a question on Urinary Tract Infection or Uti?
* guaranteed answer within 4 hours.

Related Questions & Answers

A Patient's Guide to Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections
Article Overview: If you have frequent urinary tract infections, here are some strategies to reduce your risk.  Read Article »
Dr. Davie Wong

1) Post-Menopause: As you get older, hormonal changes cause alterations to your vagina and its contents, predisposing you to urinary tract infections. Topical estrogen applied inside the vagina can reduce the risk of infections. Your doctor will decide if this treatment is right for you. 2) Sexual ...  Read Article »
What is the reason for red meatus and burning sensation during urination?
Query: Hi doctor, My meatus is red and has a small spot on one side. There is a constant burning sensation when I urinate. I am frequently urinating in small amounts. Recently, I had a DRE, and they told me that my prostate is enlarged. I have a foul smell from my penis. I never had this problem before. I...  Read Full »
Dr. Karthik Rajan

Answer: Hi, Welcome to I have gone through your query and the picture (attachment removed to protect patient identity). It looks like a urinary tract infection which has resulted in some inflammation around the meatus. I would like to know whether you had tenderness in your prostate during an...  Read Full »
Is it normal to have vaginal pain while urinating along with stomach and back pain?
Query: Hello doctor, I have pain in the inside of my vagina when I pee and lower back and stomach pain that comes and goes. Is this normal?  Read Full »
Dr. Uzma Arqam
Obstetrician And Gynaecologist

Answer: Hi, Welcome to It could be sexually transmitted infection or pelvic infection. Have high vaginal swab urinalysis, urine culture. Strict hygiene. Soft comfortable undergarments. Use condoms to avoid sexually transmitted infection. Avoid cosmetics locally, just use a soft razor for hair...  Read Full »

Ask a Doctor Online

* guaranteed answer within 4 hours

Related Tags