07 Sep 2018 - 2 min read
In this article, I have discussed a rare carcinoma, carcinoma of the esophagus. Here I have explained the types, causes, clinical features, predisposition, investigations and treatment of the esophageal cancer.
Carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare, but fatal carcinoma. It is more prevalent in the males than in females. It is commonly seen in the lower socioeconomic group.
Types of Esophageal Carcinoma:
The two main types of esophageal cancer are,
The causes of esophagus cancer are excess alcohol intake and smoking (synergist role), carcinogen exposure such as nitrates, smoked opiates and fungal toxins, mucosal damage like ingestion of tea, lye and exposure to radiation, chronic achalasia, chronic gastric reflux, Plummer-Vinson syndrome, tylosis palmaris et plantaris (palmoplantar keratosis), dietary deficiencies of zinc, molybdenum, and selenium and celiac disease.
Esophageal Carcinoma Predisposition:
Clinical Features of Esophageal Carcinoma:
Progressive dysphagia and weight loss in short duration. Dysphagia more for solids than liquids and soft diet and odynophagia, the pain may radiate to chest or back. Also, emesis, aspiration pneumonia, lymphadenopathy (supraclavicular lymph node) and metastasis (lung, pleura, bone, liver) and hypercalcemia, a feature of squamous cell carcinoma.
Achalasia may have to be ruled out in cases of malignant tumor, due to the presence of ulcerations. Ulcerations are not commonly seen in benign tumors.
1) Surgical Resection:
Cisplatin (platinum) containing chemotherapy.
3) Palliative Therapy:
Attempted chemoradiotherapy followed by a surgical resection may yield better results.
Barrett's esophagus is a premalignant condition. There is no reliable non-histological marker of developing carcinoma or dysplasia. Bisphosphonates may increase the occurrence of Barrett's esophagus.
To know more about esophageal cancer, consult an esophageal cancer specialist online --> https://www.icliniq.com/ask-a-doctor-online/surgical-oncologist/esophageal-cancer
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