Kidneys are vital organs of the body that are located just below the rib cage. They are bean-shaped, each about the size of the fist. Kidneys remove the waste products and excess fluid from the body. They also regulate salt, potassium, and acid contents of the body. Kidneys also release hormones that regulate blood pressure.
Kidney cancer or renal cell cancer is a disease in which cancer cells form in the kidneys, beginning with the tubules of the kidneys.
Kidney cancer can present with following symptoms and signs:
The causes and risk factors that can cause kidney cancer are:
How to Diagnose Kidney Cancer
Patient has to undergo series of investigations to confirm the diagnosis and to stage the disease including C.T. scan, ultrasound abdomen, urine tests, and blood tests.
All the malignant kidney tumors need surgical resection (removal) if they are localized and not metastatic (has not spread to other parts). Surgical removal of the tumor is considered the gold standard treatment.
The doctor may perform one of the following procedures depending on the extent of spread.
If surgery will not help, the doctor may suggest one of the following.
If the kidney tumor is metastatic (has spread to other parts of the body), then the patient would need target/immunotherapy depending upon the pathological type of tumor, genetic, and many other factors.
These target agents have revolutionized the treatment of kidney cancer. They have shown good efficacy and tolerance compared to the previously used treatment. They were first approved a decade ago.
These drugs include:
Now, most recently few more drugs namely Cabozantinib, Lenvatinib, and immune checkpoint inhibitor Nivolumab have been approved and have much more efficacy.
Kidney cancer clinical trials continue and new immunological and target agents are on the horizon.
For more information consult a kidney cancer specialist online --> https://www.icliniq.com/ask-a-doctor-online/medical-oncologist/kidney-cancerLast reviewed at: 07.Sep.2018