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10 Common Oral Cavity Issues

Published on Sep 29, 2021 and last reviewed on Nov 24, 2022   -  4 min read


Do you have an idea about the most common oral cavity issues and how it can be treated or prevented? Then read the article to know more about the common oral cavity problems.


There is a link between declining oral health and the underlying health conditions as there are some most common dental conditions that can affect the oral cavity and health of an individual, so everyone should be aware about these common issues. Below are some common dental problems, their symptoms, and potential treatment options to prevent further complications.

1) Cavities or Caries:

These are also called black spots in lay terms. These are either progressive or arrested in nature. The reason for caries is the accumulation of food particles for a long duration of time that may cause bacterial colonization in it and lead to the production of acid that causes decay of tooth structure. Progressive caries, when involving the nerve of the tooth, pains a lot and may lead to reversible or irreversible pulpitis.

To prevent caries, one has to brush twice, use dental floss, use fluoridated toothpaste, use chlorhexidine mouthwash, and have strict control on sugary and sticky food. Caries can be treated by restoration or root canal, or extraction, depending on the spread of caries. Visit your dentist regularly to check your dental condition and caries status.

2) Fever Blisters Or Cold Sores:

These are fluid-filled blisters. They grow on lips, under your nose or chin. They are highly contagious, and they are caused by a virus such as Herpes Simplex. They appear to be gray red and take up to 1 to 2 weeks to heal. Your dentist will prescribe antiviral drugs for such viral fever blisters.

3) Chipped Tooth:

The most common causes for chipped or fractured teeth are-

- Teeth grinding or bruxism.

- Trauma to the tooth because of a car accident or falls.

- Contact sports without a mouthguard.

- Biting on a hard substance.

These are the things that increase the risk of chipping of tooth or tooth fracture. If there is a minor fracture of the tooth substance, it will not be painful as there will be an enamel fracture. There will be pain in the tooth structure when a fracture involves dentine or pulp of the tooth.


- Tooth fracture gives a feeling of rough surface to tongue, irritation, sensitivity, or pain.

Treatment of chipped teeth:

Treatment depends on severity and symptoms. Treatment options available for chipped teeth are-

- Tooth reattachment:

For this, you have to keep a broken piece of tooth in milk or normal saline so that it will not lose its vitality, and then visit a dentist. The dentist will see whether it is possible or not to reattach a fractured tooth.

- Tooth-colored filling or restoration.

- Bonding.

- Porcelain veneers.

- Dental onlays, etc.

4) Bruxism:

It is called tooth grinding. It is night grinding when the individual is sleeping, but it may occur during the daytime also if the individual is stressed. It may be because of stress or anxiety or deep psychological trauma or altered occlusion, or abnormal bite because of a new crown or prosthesis in the mouth. It causes wearing of tooth structure and deep continuous pain that may lead to TMJ pain, headache, or ear pain.

Treatment may involve the removal of the cause. If stress is the cause, then stress relaxation, counseling, meditation, and exercise. The dentist will give a mouth guard or a bite covering the occlusion to prevent the wear and tear of teeth.

5) Gingivitis:

Gingiva is a gum that covers a tooth. Gingivitis is the infection or inflammation of gum tissues. It is most commonly caused by the accumulation of food particles in the gingiva, which leads to the production of plaque accumulation leading to bacterial accumulation in gums and causes infection to that site.

Signs and symptoms of gingivitis are redness of the gingival, swelling of the gingival, bleeding from gingival tissue while brushing or while eating or biting on fruits or hard food substances. In the initial stages, gingivitis is reversible and painless. It gives bad breath. During pregnancy and in other systemic diseases such as diabetes, gingivitis will be there. To prevent gingivitis, one has to brush twice daily, floss your teeth, and use chlorhexidine mouthwash. A routine dental checkup, professional dental scaling are a must for the maintenance of gingival health.

6) Periodontitis:

It is inflammation and infection of the periodontal ligament. It is the reason for tooth loss in adults. Periodontitis may be juvenile periodontitis or adult periodontitis.

Signs of periodontitis are swollen gums, bleeding from gums, bad breath, tooth loss, and alteration in bite or occlusion. Diabetes is the sixth complication of periodontitis. Treatment for periodontitis is professional deep cleaning and root planing. So you need to see a dentist or a periodontist for treatment of periodontitis.

7) Oral Thrush Or Candidiasis:

It is a fungal infection. It is white cottony or cheese-like growth that grows in the oral cavity or throat. It mainly occurs in immunocompromised individuals or diabetic patients, or individuals who are on steroids, or long-standing denture-wearing patients. Candidiasis growth is scrapable, and after scrapping the sample and after confirmation from that sample that it is candidiasis, then your dentist will prescribe medicines for it.

8) Tooth Discoloration Or Dark Tooth:

It is a change in your tooth color. It appears dark, unlike the original bright color of the tooth. Most common is trauma to the tooth or infection of the pulp tissue. Dark color might be due to dyeing the nerve or an act of protection of the nerve from dying.

There may be other reasons for staining, such as food colors, dental materials cause alteration in tooth color, disease, aging, genetics, etc. Root canal and crown is the treatment for tooth discoloration because of trauma. For extrinsic stains, professional scaling is useful.

9) Canker Sores:

These are sores having red borders that appear on your lips, underneath the tongue and throat. It may be due to immuno-compromised status, vitamin deficiency, or immune system or bacteria or virus. It is not contagious. These can be treated with topical ointment or multivitamin therapy. Till complete recovery, one should avoid hot, spicy, acidic food and drink plenty of water.

10) Cancer:

These are conditions that appear on the tongue, throat, or cheeks. It may appear as red or white patches or growth in the oral cavity. The causative factor may be continuous irritation, use of tobacco, alcohol, genetics, etc. Regular dental checkups are necessary for screening, prevention, and early treatment.

Last reviewed at:
24 Nov 2022  -  4 min read




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