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Candidiasis and Its Spectrum of Manifestation

Published on Oct 29, 2016 and last reviewed on Feb 04, 2022   -  4 min read

Abstract

Candidiasis is a fungal infection that presents with lesions. This article discusses the clinical presentation and management of candidiasis.

Contents
Candidiasis and Its Spectrum of Manifestation

What Is Candidiasis?

An infection caused by the yeast (fungus), Candida albicans, is known as candidiasis. This infection is usually confined to the skin, nail, mucus membranes, and gastrointestinal tract. But, it can also infect internal organs and cause systemic disease.

What Is Invasive Candidiasis?

Invasive candidiasis is a severe infection that affects blood, bones, eyes, and vital organs like the heart, brain, etc. It is different from chronic candidal infections in the oral cavity, vagina, and nails. The blood infection of candida is known as candidemia, a severe condition that requires immediate medical intervention.

What Are Candida Albicans?

Candida albicans is an oval yeast, which divides by budding. Apart from its yeast form, it can produce long chains of elongated cells (pseudohyphae) and occasionally continuous hyphae with cross walls. This ability to exist in hyphal and yeast forms is known as dimorphism. Both males and females are equally prone to get affected at all ages.

Facts About Candidiasis:

Candida albicans, the causative yeast, is an opportunist par excellence. It flourishes in the warmth and moisture provided by the body-folds, damaged nail cuticle due to prolonged contact with soap and water, altered vaginal pH, neonates, infants, malnourished, debilitated, and the immunocompromised (HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, leukemia, steroid or immunosuppressive therapy) individuals.

The typical presentation of candidiasis is redness, tiny superficial pustules (pus-filled lesions), erosions, and overlying curdy white discharge. Some of its common manifestations are oral thrush, vulvovaginitis, intertrigo, paronychia, and balanoposthitis.

What Are the Predisposing Factors of Candidiasis?

Candida albicans, usually a harmless resident of the throat, gut, and vagina, is a barometer of defective immunity causing opportunistic clinical infection during the following conditions.

What Are the Clinical Manifestations of Candidiasis?

  1. Skin:

Moist and macerated axilla, genitocrural, interdigital, and inframammary folds predominantly involve itchy red areas with satellite vesicles and pustules.

2. Oral:

a. Oral Candidiasis - Oral candidal involvement can be acute pseudomembranous or acute atrophic. Acute pseudomembranous (thrush) is white curd-like patches over the tongue, buccal mucosa, palate, and gingiva. It can be scraped off, leaving a raw, bright red surface, and is the most typical type.

3. Genital:

a. Balanitis or Balanoposthitis - Small papules and pustules appear on the glans, prepuce, or coronal sulcus and soon break down to leave superficial erythematous erosions with a surrounding collarette of scales.

b. Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Thick, creamy vaginal discharge associated with burning or itching.

4. Nails:

a. Paronychia - Redness, swelling, and tenderness in the paronychial area.

How Is Candidiasis Manifested in HIV Patients?

In acute atrophic, raw erythematous areas are seen in people with HIV infection. Erythematous candidiasis is the most common manifestation in AIDS patients, affecting the dorsal tongue or palate presenting with bright red patches. Oral candidiasis is a common, early, and often an initial presentation of HIV.

Oral infections that may predict the onset of other serious opportunistic diseases are:

How Is Candidiasis Diagnosed?

1. Scraping:

10% KOH (potassium hydroxide) mounts of the scrapings from the suspected site examined under a microscope reveal candida as oval budding and elongated filamentous cells connected in the sausage-like manner (pseudohyphae).

2. Culture:

In Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), whitish mucoid colonies grow within two to five days.

What Is the Treatment for Candidiasis?

1. Oral Candidiasis:

  1. For oral candidiasis, Nystatin suspension (4,00,000 to 6,00,000 U) should be topically applied four times daily. It should be held in the mouth and then swallowed.

  2. Local application of Clotrimazole mouth paint and Gentian violet 1% to 2% is also used to treat candidiasis.

  3. Systemic treatment for oral candidiasis can be any one of the following:

    1. Tablet Ketoconazole 200 mg per day for 1 to 2 weeks (in AIDS, the dose is 400 mg per day).

    2. Tablet Fluconazole 50 mg to 100 mg per day for seven days.

    3. Tablet Itraconazole 100 mg per day for 14 days.

2. Vulvovaginal Candidiasis:

For vulvovaginal candidiasis, Clotrimazole suppository 500 mg HS and tablet Fluconazole 150 mg stat.

3. Candidal Balanitis:

For balanitis, Clotrimazole topical cream and tablet Fluconazole 150 mg stat.

4. Candidiasis in Skin:

For skin, Nystatin cream and Miconazole cream topical.

5. Paronychia:

For nails, Miconazole topical and oral Ketoconazole or Fluconazole.

For the treatment to be effective, correction of predisposing factors is essential, along with an exhibition of topical or systemic antifungals in unresponsive or immunocompromised patients.

How Can We Prevent Oral Candidiasis?

Candidiasis in the oral cavity can be avoided by doing the following:

How Can We Prevent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis?

  1. Wear cotton underwear.

  2. Avoid douching.

  3. Avoid tight-fitting underwear, pants, or skirts.

  4. Avoid bathing in hot waters or hot tubs.

  5. Do not stay in wet clothing for a long time.

  6. Make sure to change sanitary napkins or tampons frequently.

  7. Avoid using deodorants or pads and tampons that contain deodorants.

  8. Always wash underwear in high temperatures to remove microbes, if present.

Are There Any Home Remedies to Treat Candidiasis?

Although not supported by research, the use of vaginal Boric acid suppositories and yogurt application provides some relief from candidiasis.

What Is the Concern of Antifungal Resistance in Candidiasis?

Resistance to antifungal drugs developed by the candida species is rendering a problem in treating candidiasis. About 7% of candidal infections that have been diagnosed tend to have resistance against an antifungal drug called Fluconazole. There are several cases of antifungal resistance to Echinocandins. When there is an antifungal resistance to Fluconazole and Echinocandins, Amphotericin B remains the only remaining option, thus creating a shortage of treatment options.

Conclusion:

Candidiasis is a fungal infection that can be best treated with antifungal drugs. However, misuse of these drugs should be avoided to prevent antifungal resistance. Also, following adequate precautionary guidelines can help prevent the incidence of candidiasis.

Last reviewed at:
04 Feb 2022  -  4 min read

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