Bariatric and metabolic surgeries are weight loss surgeries that improve overall health. For more information about these surgeries, read this article.
With the increasing pace in the daily routine, there has been a tremendous modification in everyone's daily day-to-day lifestyle. Food, sleep pattern, relaxation areas, and day-to-day tensions have all taken a paradigm shift. Eventually, there has been an exponential increase in patients with more noncommunicable diseases like hypertension, diabetes, obesity, depression, etc.
Obesity is the cost of people's visits to shopping malls, movies, social gatherings, functions, and parties. It is a disease that gradually deteriorates people's health. When a complication arises from obesity for any individual, it becomes a complex medical issue to treat. So when things are well within one's control, one has to fight to stay long enough in this world to enjoy Mother Earth's various offerings in the years to come.
For example, an individual becomes obese at the age of 20 or 21, gets fixed by an MNC (multinational company) after 30 years of age, and becomes a frequent traveler abroad. Will he not miss the variety of foods he will likely experience during his travels? People should understand that eating biryani seven days a week and missing out on a lifelong variety of food is insane. Therefore, rather than becoming accustomed to the postprandial tiredness that results from overeating and fainting with hyperglycemia (excess sugar in the blood), one should cultivate the habit of limiting the use of the taste buds to only taste. Nowadays, various surgical options are available for obese patients, as also the surgical cure for metabolic diseases like diabetes.
Bariatric surgery, which includes gastric bypass and other weight-loss treatments, involves making adjustments to the digestive system to aid in weight loss. Bariatric surgery is performed when diet and exercise have been unsuccessful or when a person is experiencing major health concerns due to excessive weight.
The term "metabolic surgery" describes surgical methods used to treat metabolic illnesses, particularly type 2 diabetes. A metabolic syndrome is a group of metabolic disorders that tend to develop together and are caused by obesity, physical inactivity, aging, and heredity. Diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure, which can result in heart disease and stroke, are all significantly more likely to occur in people with metabolic syndrome. Diabetes is a medical disorder where blood glucose levels are persistently higher than usual. One of the key contributing factors to the onset of diabetes is obesity.
Metabolic surgery is part of bariatric surgery. All individuals with extremely high weights who require weight loss should consider bariatric surgery. Metabolic surgery, as opposed to obesity, treats diabetes and metabolic dysfunctions that have not responded to lifestyle and medication adjustments.
The types of bariatric and metabolic surgery are discussed below.
This keyhole surgery converts the stomach into a long, narrow tube the size and shape of a banana. This restricts the patient's food intake and improves the ability of intestinal hormones to lower blood sugar.
Gastric Bypass Surgery
This is also a keyhole surgical operation that generates a small egg-shaped pouch in the upper stomach that is then "Y" connected to the bottom part of the small intestine. This bypass diverts food and allows it to be absorbed in only a small portion of the intestine.
Biliopancreatic Diversion With Duodenal Switch (BPD/DS)
In this surgery, about two-thirds to three-quarters of the upper small intestine are bypassed, and the bulk of the stomach's most extensible region is permanently eliminated. A BPD/DS inhibits the ability to consume and lowers nutrient absorption, especially proteins and fats. In most cases, BPD/DS is performed as a single procedure; however, in rare cases, the procedure may be conducted as two consecutive operations sleeve gastrectomy followed by intestinal bypass once weight loss has started.
While a BPD/DS is quite effective, it has additional dangers, such as starvation and vitamin shortages. This technique is typically suggested for persons with a BMI (body mass index) of over 50.
The advantages of metabolic and bariatric surgery are listed below.
The procedure results in significant weight loss, which leads to significant improvement in type 2 diabetes.
After this surgery, Improvements can be noticed in obesity-associated diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, sleep apnea, and asthma.
Metabolic surgery can result in significant weight loss that is long-term.
Weight loss through surgery also helps to improve overall welfare and quality of life.
Metabolic surgery is a fairly safe procedure with a lengthy track record of success. The primary risks are associated with complications, including bleeding and staple line leaking, infections, and health issues like breathing problems, deep vein thrombosis (a blood clot that forms in a vein deep inside the body), and bad anesthetic reactions in the first few days following surgery.
The procedure takes roughly two hours and is conducted under general anesthesia. For a few days, the individual will be advised to take only a liquid diet before graduating to soft meals. The majority of patients will be hospitalized for three to five days. The individual will be able to move around the day following surgery, and most of them will be able to resume normal activities and exercise within two weeks.
To conclude, the solution to repair an individual's damage due to obesity is a surgical treatment. This is the last resort that one has after trying all remedies like food restriction, diet, exercise, lifestyle modification, etc. However, it should be noted that the surgical option is only available to patients who have failed medical treatment and not to those who have failed despite their best efforts. Because surgery is only going to facilitate things, the individual's mindset to reduce weight should still be there to achieve successful surgical results. Remember, surgery is not a shortcut to reducing weight.
Bariatric and metabolic surgeries surround each other, but bariatric surgery is for all overweight people who want to lose weight through surgery. Meanwhile, metabolic surgery is for specific individuals with metabolic dysfunctions or diabetes and does not respond to medication and lifestyle moderation.
Bariatric surgery is not only indicated for overweight people but may need specific medical attention associated with weight-related health problems. Bariatric surgery is indicated for obese patients with a body mass index of 40 or higher. An individual with obesity tends to develop type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, high blood pressure, and other weight-related disorders.
Metabolic surgeons are the doctors who consult the patient and diagnose them accordingly and plan the surgery that has been indicated or decided to be performed based on the underlying condition that has been diagnosed.
Bariatric surgery increases the risk of developing blood clots, infections, breathing problems, and adverse reactions. In addition, long-term complications involve vomiting, gallstones, ulcers, hernia, acid reflux, and life-threatening conditions.
Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty is a new type of bariatric surgery with a minimally invasive weight loss procedure.
There are five types of bariatric surgery involving -
- Sleeve Gastrectomy- Sleeve gastrectomy, also known as laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, is used to remove 80% of stomach fat.
- Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass is one of the most common and effective surgeries. The name means in the form of Y in french.
- Adjustable Gastric Band- It is a silicone device placed around the top part of the stomach to limit gastric filling.
- Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch- This surgical process creates a tube-shaped stomach and the part of the small intestine detached from the stomach.
- Single Anastomosis Duodenal-Ileal Bypass with Sleeve Gastrectomy is one of the most recent and straightforward surgical procedures.
Bariatric surgery is indicated for people with a body mass index of 40 or more.
Bariatric surgery has its own risk, and complications involving blood clot formation, heart problems, strokes, non-alcoholic fatty liver, and cancer lead to life-threatening conditions and death.
BMI refers to the body mass index, which uses height and weight to measure healthy body weight.
Ranges of body mass index -
- Below 18 - Underweight.
- Between 18.5 - 24.9 - Healthy weight.
- Between 25 - 29.9 - Overweight.
- Between 30 - 39.9 - Obese.
The best weight loss surgery in 2022 is endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty. It is a simple, non-invasive surgical procedure that involves an endoscope tube with a camera and a particular suturing device that is lowered down through the patient’s throat. This procedure takes 30 - 45 mins and requires a minimal hospital stay.
Yes, Bariatric surgery is reversible; an individual can get back to restore their physical appearance by laparoscopic process and unfolding of the stomach lining.
After gastric sleeve surgery, the patient has to start a proper diet involving no sugar and non-carbonated liquid for the first week. Then, a regular diet can be initiated after four weeks. In addition, the patient is advised to take multivitamins twice a day, calcium once a day, and vitamin B12 injection once a month for the rest of their life.
Bariatric is a term used to describe things related to obesity, like the bariatric scale used to measure obesity.
Liraglutide is a drug used for weight loss and diet. It leads to reduced appetite, which is indicated in a patient with more than 30 body mass index with body pressure and type 2 diabetes.
The gastric sleeve surgery leads to the removal of 80% of the stomach, so the chances of the stomach growing back is significantly less.
Last reviewed at:
02 Dec 2022 - 4 min read
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