What Is Coronary Bypass Surgery?
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Coronary Bypass Surgery - Indications and Process

Published on Feb 02, 2023   -  4 min read


Coronary bypass surgery is a surgical procedure done to treat coronary artery diseases. Refer to this article to know in detail.


Coronary artery bypass grafting, also known as heart bypass surgery, is a medical method to enhance blood flow toward the heart. It is required when the arteries providing blood to the heart, called coronary arteries, are restricted or clogged. Coronary bypass surgery diverts blood near a quarter of the heart's blocked or partly blocked artery.

The process includes carrying a healthful blood vessel from the leg, hand, or trunk and linking it down and above the clogged arteries in the heart. With this new pathway, blood flow to the heart muscle enhances. Coronary artery bypass grafting is a surgical procedure that rejuvenates blood flow to sites of the heart that are not acquiring sufficient blood.

This surgery can improve the functioning of the heart. Coronary bypass surgery would not heal the heart disorder that induced the blockages, such as atherosclerosis of coronary artery disease. Nevertheless, it can reduce signs like chest discomfort and shortness of breath. In some cases, this process can enhance the heart process and decrease the chance of dying of heart disease.

What Is Coronary Bypass Surgery?

Bypass surgery is the most typical kind of open-heart surgery. Individuals have significant outcomes and live symptom-free for a decade or better. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery is used to manage coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease is constriction of the coronary arteries that provide oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle.

Blood vessels, or grafts, are utilized for the bypass process components of a vein from the leg or an artery in the chest. An artery from the wrist can also be utilized. The surgeon will connect each end of the graft outside the obstruction and the other end down part of the obstruction. Blood bypasses the obstruction by running via the new graft to reach the muscles of the heart. It is known as coronary artery bypass surgery.

  • Generally, to bypass the obstructed coronary artery, the surgeon makes a big incision in the chest and stops the heart transiently. To open the chest, the surgeon incises the breastbone half its length and extends it separately. After exposing the seat, surgeons place a tube into the heart so it can pump blood throughout the body via the heart-lung bypass machine. The machine is required to pump blood when the heart is stopped.

What Are the Indications of Coronary Bypass Surgery?

Bypass surgery is done for the management of manifestations of coronary artery disease. It is caused when a fatty material called plaque forms the inner portion of the arteries in the heart and obstructs blood and oxygen from arriving at it. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery manages an obstruction or constriction of one or more coronary arteries to repair the blood supply to the heart muscle.

  • If one of the coronary arteries has a disorder inducing the left ventricle, The chamber that does most of the heart's blood pumping does not work correctly.

  • In case of obstruction, the left main coronary artery supplies blood to the left ventricle.

  • In cases where the patient had any previous procedure that was not successful, it causes more constriction of arteries.

  • New obstruction cases.

The manifestations of coronary artery disease involve:

  • Pain in the chest is the main symptom of coronary artery disease.

  • Fatigue- Means a patient will have severe tiredness.

  • Palpitations- A condition of the fast beating of the heart.

  • Abnormal heart rhythms- Also called arrhythmia, when the heart beats too fast, too slow, or irregularly.

  • Shortness of Breath- In cases of coronary artery disease, patients may experience trouble breathing.

  • Swelling in the Hands and Feet- Is also seen in coronary artery disease.

In some patients, there wouldn't be any symptoms in initial cases of coronary artery disease. Thus the condition will persist and resume advancement until sufficient obstruction induces manifestations and difficulties. A continuous reduction in the blood supply to the heart muscle due to the advancing obstruction of a coronary artery will lead to a heart attack. If those affected areas' blood supply cannot be replaced, those affected tissues will not regenerate and will be destroyed.

How Is the Coronary Bypass Surgery Performed?

  • Before the procedure, specific blood tests, chest X-rays, and an electrocardiogram should be done. The surgeon will also recommend an X-ray technique known as a coronary angiogram. It utilizes a particular dye to demonstrate the movement of blood through the arteries.

  • Anesthesia is given during the procedure; the duration is about three to six hours. First, a tube for breathing is kept in the mouth. Then, it is connected to a ventilator. Next, a surgeon creates a lengthy incision in the center of the chest and extends the rib cage open. Thus, the accessibility to the heart is improved. Then, transiently the heart is stopped, and a heart-lung machine will maintain blood and oxygen coursing through the body while the heart is not functioning.

  • Then the surgeon extracts the vessel, named a graft, from another part of the patient's body, such as the chest, leg, or arm, followed by connecting the end to the aorta. Then, the other end of an artery is down part of the blockage.

  • The graft constructs a fresh way for blood to cross the heart. In addition, the graft creates a new way for blood to travel through the gut. In some cases, the surgeon is not required to stop the heart. These are called off-pump techniques.


Coronary bypass surgery is a surgical procedure done to treat coronary artery disease. Various methods are available for this procedure. Post-surgically, in most cases, they feel more acceptable and may stay symptom-free for longer. But after a period, there is a chance that other arteries or maybe the latest graft utilized in the bypass will evolve clogged, demanding new bypass or angioplasty procedures. The long-term effect relies partly on accepting medications to control blood clots, reduce blood pressure, reduce cholesterol, and control diabetes.

Last reviewed at:
02 Feb 2023  -  4 min read




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