Infectious Diseases Data Verified

Malaria - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

Published on Mar 29, 2022   -  4 min read

Abstract

Malaria is a common disease that mostly develops during the monsoon. Both adults and children are affected by this disease. Read the article to know more.

Contents

Introduction:

Malaria is an infectious disease (mosquito-borne) caused by Plasmodium parasites. This parasitic infection in humans occurs mainly due to five parasitic species; they are, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium knowlesi. Globally around 1.5 to 3 million people die each year due to malaria, and the greatest threats are posed mostly by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.

How Is Malaria Transmitted?

Malaria is transmitted from one person to other through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. As these parasites affect red blood cells, malaria can also be transmitted through infected blood via,

What Are the Symptoms of Malaria?

The approximate incubation period is 12 days in the case of Plasmodium falciparum, 14 days for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale, and 30 days for Plasmodium malariae. During that time, people will not develop any symptoms, but the malarial parasite will be multiplying. Following that, the typical symptoms seen are fever with chills and rigor.

This may also be associated with,

Nonspecific Symptoms:

Abdominal Symptoms:

Initially, there will be shaking chills for a few hours (cold stage), followed by high fever (hot stage) and marked sweating (sweating stage). The fever is intermittent, which may occur every other day in Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale infection (tertian malaria), and in the case of Plasmodium malariae, fever occurs every third day (quartan malaria). However, Plasmodium falciparum has no specific pattern of fever. The patients may have anemia and mild jaundice due to the breakdown of red blood cells. As well as, there are chances for enlargement of the spleen when this occurs, mild liver enlargement may also be seen.

How Is Malaria Caused?

Malaria occurs with the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. When it bites, the uninfected humans undergo various stages with the breakdown of red blood cells to transmit malaria. The below flow chart will explain in detail how a mosquito causes malaria.

causes of malaria

In the case of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale infections, it is said that some sporozoites remain in a dormant form in the liver as hypnozoites for upto a year or more. These hypnozoites can get reactivated later and cause delayed primary infection or relapses. Relapse can also occur if treatment is not given to eradicate hypnozoites.

In the case of Plasmodium falciparum, it invades red blood cells of all ages, whereas Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale preferably invade immature red blood cells, and Plasmodium malariae invades the developing red blood cells (normoblasts). Parasitemia is most severe in Plasmodium falciparum infection, where more than 2 % of all red blood cells can be infected. Hence the breakdown of red blood cells is most severe in Plasmodium falciparum infection.

The red blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum get adhered to capillary endothelium and agglutinate with other infected RBCs and form into clusters with uninfected red blood cells. This leads to ischemia and dysfunction of various organs such as the brain, liver, kidney, lungs, and gut.

How Is Malaria Diagnosed?

Early diagnosis is highly essential for recovery from malaria. When there are signs and symptoms, it is better to reach the doctor at the earliest and get treatment accordingly. The World Health Organization (WHO) says that it is better to confirm the diagnosis through microscopic laboratory testing to identify the parasite, or a rapid diagnostic test can be performed depending on the facilities available.

If there is a combination of symptoms, malaria cannot be distinguished only by the symptoms available. In order to distinguish, a parasitological test is essential to identify and treat the disease. In malaria-endemic areas, the severity of the disease causes a large proportion of the population with mild immunity. So, some people will carry the parasite through the bloodstream but may not fall ill.

How Can Malaria Be Prevented?

Several ways to prevent malaria are,

Vaccination:

Research is ongoing to develop safe vaccines for malaria. One vaccine has already been licensed in Europe; however, it is not licensed in the United States. So, consult a doctor when there are suspected symptoms.

Advice for Travelers:

Things to Carry:

People who travel should carry prevalent tools such as,

All these are not harmful to humans as the concentration of pesticides kills only the mosquitoes and does not pose any risk to humans.

Precautions:

Avoid situations that may increase the risk of getting a bite by mosquitoes. Things to remember are:

Up to around six months after traveling, a person may be able to develop symptoms, so it is not advisable to donate blood for some period.

How Is Malaria Treated?

Treatment of malaria mainly aims to eliminate the Plasmodium parasite from the blood. People without symptoms are treated to reduce the risk of disease transmission. There are several drugs for the treatment of malaria, and they are:

treatment of malaria

Conclusion:

Malaria is a life-threatening disease leading to thousands of deaths yearly. In order to avoid this, we should create awareness and educate people properly to eradicate this disease. When immediate and proper treatment is given, the person will be able to recover from malaria. So reach out to the doctor when you notice any symptoms.

Last reviewed at:
29 Mar 2022  -  4 min read

RATING

15

Tags:

Comprehensive Medical Second Opinion.Submit your Case

Related Questions & Answers


My son has fever and vomited his malaria medicine. What to do?

Query: Hi doctor, My son (2 years 8 months) was hospitalized due to fever along with a sand paper kind of rashes in the body for four days. He was suspected of dengue and the initial blood test showed IgG positive. Herewith I am attaching the discharge summary and all other reports. After getting discharge...  Read Full »

Does my father have a high-grade fever with shivering and headache due to malaria?

Query: Hi doctor,My father is 61 years old suffering from shivering and a high-grade fever of 102.5 degrees Fahrenheit. He is diabetic and having high blood pressure. Can I give him Lumerax 80 for the suspected malaria?  Read Full »

Can malaria elevate CPK value?

Query: Hi doctor, My father, who is 70 years old, was admitted in a hospital for severe weakness, high fever (105 degrees Fahrenheit), shivering and lack of appetite. Blood tests revealed that he had malaria (Vivax) and a platelet count of 44,000, which is below normal. But, there was no dengue or typhoid....  Read Full »

Popular Articles Most Popular Articles

Do you have a question on Malaria or ?

Ask a Doctor Online

* guaranteed answer within 4 hours.

Disclaimer: No content published on this website is intended to be a substitute for professional medical diagnosis, advice or treatment by a trained physician. Seek advice from your physician or other qualified healthcare providers with questions you may have regarding your symptoms and medical condition for a complete medical diagnosis. Do not delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice because of something you have read on this website. Read our Editorial Process to know how we create content for health articles and queries.