Malaria | Symptoms | Causes | Diagnosis | Prevention | Treatment
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Malaria - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

Published on Mar 29, 2022 and last reviewed on Mar 10, 2023   -  5 min read


Malaria is a common disease that mostly develops during the monsoon. Both adults and children are affected by this disease. Read the article to know more.


Malaria is an infectious disease (mosquito-borne) caused by Plasmodium parasites. This parasitic infection in humans occurs mainly due to five parasitic species; they are, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium knowlesi. Globally around 1.5 to 3 million people die each year due to malaria, and the greatest threats are posed mostly by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.

How Is Malaria Transmitted?

Malaria is transmitted from one person to other through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. As these parasites affect red blood cells, malaria can also be transmitted through infected blood via,

  • The transplacental route (mother to fetus).

  • Blood transfusion.

  • By sharing used needles.

What Are the Symptoms of Malaria?

The approximate incubation period is 12 days in the case of Plasmodium falciparum, 14 days for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale, and 30 days for Plasmodium malariae. During that time, people will not develop any symptoms, but the malarial parasite will be multiplying. Following that, the typical symptoms seen are fever with chills and rigor.

This may also be associated with,

Nonspecific Symptoms:

Abdominal Symptoms:

Initially, there will be shaking chills for a few hours (cold stage), followed by high fever (hot stage) and marked sweating (sweating stage). The fever is intermittent, which may occur every other day in Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale infection (tertian malaria), and in the case of Plasmodium malariae, fever occurs every third day (quartan malaria). However, Plasmodium falciparum has no specific pattern of fever. The patients may have anemia and mild jaundice due to the breakdown of red blood cells. As well as, there are chances for enlargement of the spleen when this occurs, mild liver enlargement may also be seen.

How Is Malaria Caused?

Malaria occurs with the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. When it bites, the uninfected humans undergo various stages with the breakdown of red blood cells to transmit malaria. The below flow chart will explain in detail how a mosquito causes malaria.


In the case of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale infections, it is said that some sporozoites remain in a dormant form in the liver as hypnozoites for upto a year or more. These hypnozoites can get reactivated later and cause delayed primary infection or relapses. Relapse can also occur if treatment is not given to eradicate hypnozoites.

In the case of Plasmodium falciparum, it invades red blood cells of all ages, whereas Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale preferably invade immature red blood cells, and Plasmodium malariae invades the developing red blood cells (normoblasts). Parasitemia is most severe in Plasmodium falciparum infection, where more than 2 % of all red blood cells can be infected. Hence the breakdown of red blood cells is most severe in Plasmodium falciparum infection.

The red blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum get adhered to capillary endothelium and agglutinate with other infected RBCs and form into clusters with uninfected red blood cells. This leads to ischemia and dysfunction of various organs such as the brain, liver, kidney, lungs, and gut.

How Is Malaria Diagnosed?

Early diagnosis is highly essential for recovery from malaria. When there are signs and symptoms, it is better to reach the doctor at the earliest and get treatment accordingly. The World Health Organization (WHO) says that it is better to confirm the diagnosis through microscopic laboratory testing to identify the parasite, or a rapid diagnostic test can be performed depending on the facilities available.

If there is a combination of symptoms, malaria cannot be distinguished only by the symptoms available. In order to distinguish, a parasitological test is essential to identify and treat the disease. In malaria-endemic areas, the severity of the disease causes a large proportion of the population with mild immunity. So, some people will carry the parasite through the bloodstream but may not fall ill.

How Can Malaria Be Prevented?

Several ways to prevent malaria are,


Research is ongoing to develop safe vaccines for malaria. One vaccine has already been licensed in Europe; however, it is not licensed in the United States. So, consult a doctor when there are suspected symptoms.

Advice for Travelers:

  • Check if there is any risk for malaria in the traveling country.

  • Seek the doctor’s help for a precautionary prescription to prevent the disease before visiting the country or place.

  • Have antimalarial drugs with you before leaving home or while traveling.

  • Before traveling, consider the risk for pregnant women, children, and elderly patients.

Things to Carry:

People who travel should carry prevalent tools such as,

  • Mosquito nets.

  • Insect repellants.

  • Insecticides.

  • Appropriate clothing.

  • Fogging or spraying pesticides, similar to the ones used in the household - used by local health authorities in emergency situations.

All these are not harmful to humans as the concentration of pesticides kills only the mosquitoes and does not pose any risk to humans.


Avoid situations that may increase the risk of getting a bite by mosquitoes. Things to remember are:

  • Choose an air-conditioned room.

  • Do not stay near stagnant waters.

  • Wear clothes that cover the whole body.

Up to around six months after traveling, a person may be able to develop symptoms, so it is not advisable to donate blood for some period.

How Is Malaria Treated?

Treatment of malaria mainly aims to eliminate the Plasmodium parasite from the blood. People without symptoms are treated to reduce the risk of disease transmission. There are several drugs for the treatment of malaria, and they are:

treatment of malaria


Malaria is a life-threatening disease leading to thousands of deaths yearly. In order to avoid this, we should create awareness and educate people properly to eradicate this disease. When immediate and proper treatment is given, the person will be able to recover from malaria. So reach out to the doctor when you notice any symptoms.

Frequently Asked Questions


Is Malaria Considered a Virus or Bacteria?

Malaria is neither virus nor bacteria. It is a disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite. Anopheles mosquitoes spread the parasite in humans by means of bites. So, it is a mosquito-borne form of parasitic infection. 


How Does Malaria Spread?

Malaria spreads through mosquito bites. Generally, infected female anopheles mosquitoes indulge in causing malaria. Firstly, the mosquito bites the infected person and becomes infected. Then, it bites the non-infected person and spreads the parasitic infection. Finally, the infection enters the human bloodstream and reaches the liver. 


What Includes the Primary Treatment of Malaria?

Antimalarial drugs are predominantly prescribed for the treatment of malaria and its symptoms, such as fever and chills. Chloroquine is primarily effective against malarial infection. In addition, the doctors might include other antimalarial medicines, including Quinine sulfate and Primaquine phosphate. 


How Is Malaria Caused?

Malaria is a parasitic disease caused by mosquito bites, specifically by infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. The disease can be life-threatening. About two hundred and forty-seven million malaria cases were reported worldwide in 2021. 


How Can One Prevent Malaria?

Malaria is a preventable disease. Here are some ways to help one prevent the potentially life-threatening condition malaria.
- Drape with mosquito nets.
- Wear long dresses with most of the coverings.
- Application of mosquito repellent cream.
- Good hygiene practices.


How Long Will Malaria Last in the Body?

The malaria recovery depends upon the type of malaria, whereas the Plasmodium malariae ranges about 18 to 40 days and the Plasmodium falciparum about nine to 14 days. Generally, malaria can be cured within two weeks. However, recurrent infections and flares are possible in contaminated areas. 


Is Malaria Serious?

Malaria is a serious and life-threatening condition. It can be fatal in malnourished individuals. Malaria can lead to jaundice and anemia due to the decline in red blood cells. In addition, the malarial infection can progress into seizures, psychological concerns, kidney failure, coma, and even death with inappropriate treatment.


Which Fruit Can Be Recommended for Malaria?

A diet incorporating fruits and vegetables serves good benefits for malaria. As per clinical studies, fruits and vegetables containing vitamins C and A help enhance immunity in individuals with malaria. This includes papaya, carrot, orange, berries, beetroot, berries, grapes, and lime. 


What Are the Stages of Malaria?

Malaria paroxysm consists of three primary stages. The stages are listed below.
- The first stage, or the cold stage, is characterized by shivering and cold feelings.
- The second stage is the hot one, presenting fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and dry skin.
- The last one is the sweating stage, where the fever subsides and thus the individual sweats. 


Is Malaria Curable?

Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by infected mosquito bites. Malaria is a curable condition with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Antimalarial drugs help relieve the symptoms of malaria by eliminating the malarial infection from the body. 


What Is the Primary Sign of Malaria?

Malaria presents symptoms similar to the flu. Fever and shaking chills are the predominant signs of malaria. The other common signs include the following.
- Headache.
- Tiredness.
- Muscle aches.
- Diarrhea.
- Nausea.
- Vomiting.


What Are the Do’s and Don'ts for Malaria?

Do’s for malaria include the following:
- Ingest a healthy diet that incorporates vitamins C and A.
- Stay hydrated.
- Use mosquito repellants.
- Take the prescribed medicines correctly. 
Don'ts for malaria include the following:
- Do not move to the malaria outbreak region.
- Do not include caffeine.
- Do not ignore the symptoms.
- Do not indulge in unhygienic sanitation. 


Can Malaria Progress to Death?

Malaria, with progression, leads to anemia and jaundice due to the decrease in red blood cells. Then, it can become severe and life-threatening complications like seizures, convulsions, kidney failure, and coma. Death can also occur in the most severe phase of malaria. 


How Can One Rapidly Recover From Malaria?

Taking appropriate antimalarial medications can help relieve the symptoms of malaria at higher rates. In addition, one can follow these ways.
- Stay hydrated.
- Ingest vitamin-rich fruits.
- Increase protein intake. 

Last reviewed at:
10 Mar 2023  -  5 min read




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