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Measles - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention

Published on Sep 12, 2020   -  4 min read

Abstract

Abstract

Measles is a viral infection occurring in children. Read this article to know more about the causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention.

Contents

What Is Measles?

Measles is caused by the measles virus. It is an RNA virus. The standard type is also called Rubeola. It is seen in early childhood. Measles is highly contagious and spreads through the droplets that are expelled during the prodromal stage. The prodromal stage indicates the beginning of the symptoms. The virus is shed in the nasal secretion, blood, and urine. The other variant is German measles. It is also called rubella. Rubella has minor symptoms than measles, but more concern should be given for pregnant women.

What Is the Incubation Period of Rubeola?

The incubation period is from ten to fourteen days. It remains infective five days before and after the appearance of rashes.

What Are the Symptoms of Rubeola?

The prodromal phase symptoms include fever, cough, conjunctivitis, malaise, and Koplik’s spots.

Koplik’s Spots: They are small, irregularly shaped, white spots surrounded by erythema in the buccal mucosa. They appear two days before the rashes appear. They have an appearance similar to table salt crystals. It can be seen on the mucosa of the buccal region, rectal, and vaginal mucosa.

Erythematous Patches: Brick red-colored, irregular maculopapular rash appears three to four days after the onset. It appears in the neck, trunk, and upper arms within 24 hours. In the next 24 hours, it spreads over the back, abdomen, and thighs. It then starts affecting the palms and sole at last. The rash lasts for four days, and it fades away. Hyperpigmentation remains in the fair-skinned individuals.

What Is Atypical Measles?

It is a syndrome occurring in adults who received the inactivated measles vaccine. After vaccination, when they come in contact with wild-type measles virus, atypical measles occurs. The patients might experience high fever without different prodromal symptoms. There might be a severe headache, abdominal pain, vomiting, and the rash first appear in the palms and soles. Later, these rashes progress in a centripetal direction. The maculopapular rash becomes vesicular and hemorrhagic. The vesicular type contains fluid-filled blisters. Koplik spots are uncommon.

What Happens When You Get Measles During Pregnancy?

Measles during pregnancy are not known to cause congenital abnormalities to the fetus. It may induce abortion or premature delivery and may cause severe complications in mothers. It is recommended that infants born to such mothers should be passively immunized with immunoglobulin at birth.

What Are the Complications of Rubeola?

How Is Rubeola Diagnosed?

Your doctor will recommend you to perform a blood test and tissue cultures. Clinical examination is also an important part of the diagnosis.

What Are the Treatment Options for Rubeola?

What Is Rubella?

Rubella is also known as German measles. Rubella is a systemic disease caused by a togavirus transmitted by inhalation of infective droplets. The incubation period is 2 to 3 weeks. The importance of rubella lies in its teratogenic effect on the fetus. Teratogenic effects determine the physiological changes in the fetus.

What Are the Clinical Features of Rubella?

What Are the Complications of Rubella?

The complications of rubella are:

How Is Rubella Diagnosed?

What Are the Treatment Options for Rubella?

What Is the Differential Diagnosis?

What Are the Preventive Measures for Rubella and Rubeola?

Discuss measles with our doctors through voice calls or video calls.

 

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Last reviewed at:
12 Sep 2020  -  4 min read

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