Have you tried everything and still not able to conceive? This article tells you about all the possible causes and treatment for male and female infertility.
Infertility is when a couple cannot conceive a child or get pregnant even after having unprotected sexual intercourse for a year. And women over 35 years old are considered infertile if they are not able to get pregnant after trying for 6 months. It also includes women who conceive but are not able to carry the pregnancy to term.
Primary infertility - It is when a woman has never been able to get pregnant.
Secondary infertility - It is when a woman has had a baby previously.
Not only a woman, but a man can also be infertile. Of all the cases, one-third is caused by male infertility, one-third by female infertility, and the remaining third can be due to unknown causes.
In men, infertility generally results from:
Low Sperm Count - When the sperm count is under 15 million.
Abnormal Sperm Shape - Abnormal shape can make it difficult for the sperm to move and fertilize an egg.
Low Sperm Motility - Spem with low motility cannot swim and reach the fallopian tube to fertilize the egg.
The changes in the sperm count, quality, and motility are affected by the following factors:
Infection, cancer, or surgery of testes.
Varicose veins in the scrotum.
Blocked ejaculatory ducts.
Exposure to environmental irritants like pesticides, toxins, and heavy metals.
Inflammation of testicles during mumps.
Hypospadias (Instead of at the tips, the urethral opening is under the penis).
Cystic fibrosis (can result in obstructed or missing vas deferens).
Stress and anxiety.
Certain drugs (Tricyclic antidepressants, anabolic steroids, calcium channel blockers, Sulfasalazine).
The common signs of male infertility are:
Decreased libido or sexual desire.
Pain or swelling in testicles.
Erectile dysfunction (problem in maintaining an erection).
Firm and small testes.
Infertility in women results when one of the following biological processes is affected:
The process by which a mature egg is released from the ovary (Ovulation).
The process where the sperm fertilizes the mature egg in the fallopian tube (Fertilization).
And the process by which the fertilized egg gets attached to the wall of the uterus (Implantation).
The factors that can affect these processes are:
Age more than 35 years.
Sexually transmitted infections.
Too much or too little exercise.
Stress and anxiety.
Exposure to environmental irritants like pesticides, toxins, and heavy metals.
Premature ovarian failure.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).
Damaged or underdeveloped egg.
Damage or scarring of the fallopian tubes during pelvic surgery.
High cholesterol levels.
Blocked fallopian tube.
Long-term use of NSAIDs.
The signs of female infertility include:
Heavy menstrual bleeding.
Absence of periods.
Reduced sexual desire.
Increased facial and body hair.
If you are trying for almost a year and are experiencing any of the above signs, it is best to get evaluated by a doctor. If the doctor suspects infertility, he or she will run some tests on you and your partner to find the exact cause.
On your visit, the doctor will take a complete medical history. He or she will ask about your overall health, your sexual history, and other risk factors. The doctor will also check your genitals for abnormalities. After this, the doctor might ask you to perform the following tests:
Semen analysis - The color, quality, quantity, and motility of sperm is checked. Presence of blood or infection is also checked in the semen.
Blood test - To check the levels of testosterone.
Ultrasound - To check for retrograde ejaculation and obstruction in the ejaculatory duct.
Urine test - To rule out chlamydia infection.
Genetic testing - To rule out genetic abnormalities.
For women, fertility begins to decrease after 30 years of age. If you are younger than 35, consult a doctor after one year of trying to get pregnant, and if you are 35 or older, visit a doctor after 6 months of trying.
On your visit, the doctor will ask you about your medical history, previous illnesses, sexual history, menstrual cycle, and any other factor that could affect your fertility. The following test is then performed:
Pelvic examination - Your pelvic area is checked to look for pelvic inflammatory disease, fibroids, or endometriosis.
Blood test - The doctor will tell you to check if you are ovulating every month with the help of ovulation kit or blood test.
Ultrasound - To examine the ovaries and uterus.
Hysterosalpingography - To check if the fallopian tube is patent.
Laparoscopy - Any abnormality in the uterus, fallopian tube, or endometriosis can be diagnosed.
Ovarian reserve testing - To determine the capacity of ovaries to produce egg cells.
Genetic testing - To rule out genetic abnormalities.
Thyroid function test.
Test to rule out sexually transmitted infections.
The treatment options for both men and women depends on the following factors:
How long you have been trying to conceive.
On your first visit, the doctor will suggest you increase the frequency of sexual intercourse during ovulation. If you are still not able to conceive, then the other treatment options are suggested.
Depending on the cause, the various treatment options are:
Lifestyle changes - Regular exercise, reducing weight, avoiding smoking and alcohol, and increased frequency of sexual intercourse.
Medicines - Testicular function and sperm count can be increased with some medications. Ask a doctor for the names of the medicine.
Surgery - Surgery is indicated for removing varicose veins in varicocele and for blocked epididymis.
Sperm retrieval - In cases of blocked ejaculatory duct and retrograde ejaculation, sperm can be directly taken from the testes or bladder and injected into an egg.
The treatment options for women are:
Fertility drugs - If the woman is infertile due to ovulation disorders, then fertility drugs are used. Consult a doctor about these drugs, as it can help regulate and induce ovulation. Depending on the cause, the different fertility drugs used are:
Human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG).
Human chorionic gonadotropin.
Surgery - If the fallopian tubes are blocked or scarred, or to treat endometriosis.
Procedures that handle egg and sperm and are used to treat infertility are called ART. The methods included are:
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) - When the woman is ovulating, sperm are injected into the uterus, so they can fertilize the released egg. Done when in unknown causes of infertility or when the sperm count or motility is low.
In-vitro fertilization (IVF) - Eggs and sperm are collected and fertilized outside in a petri dish, and the fertilized eggs are placed in the uterus for implantation.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) - During IVF, only a single sperm is injected into an egg.
Sperm donation - In IVF, sperm is collected from a donor.
Egg donation - During IVF, eggs can be received from a donor.
Gestational carrier - The embryo made from a couple's sperm and egg is placed in the uterus of a surrogate.
Assisted hatching - It is done when IVF is not successful or in older women. This procedure helps the embryo to implant or get attached to the wall of the uterus by making a small hole in the outer membrane of the embryo.
Natural treatment options are:
Acupuncture - The insertion of small and thin needles into various points of the body.
Yoga - It includes breathing techniques to promote relaxation and decrease stress and anxiety.
Aromatherapy - It used essential oils to reduce stress and promote fertility.
Diet - Avoid refined carbohydrates, trans fats, and processed foods. Consume a high-fiber diet and plant protein.
Vitamins - Zinc, folate, vitamin C and E, and iron promote fertility.
There are a lot of options available for couples who wish to have a child but are not able to conceive. If you have been unsuccessful even after trying for more than a year, it is best you consult a doctor. You can also consult experienced and professionally trained infertility doctors online.
Infertility refers to the condition where there is a difficulty for a couple to achieve pregnancy. Infertility is known to occur in both males and females. The inability to conceive or get pregnant even after having unprotected sex for more than a year is known as infertility.
The main causes of infertility in males are diabetes, obesity, and sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea. Genetic reasons might contribute to infertility in some patients. Conditions like varicocele, which have enlarged veins in the testes, can also cause infertility because of the negative influence on the production of sperms.
We can identify whether a woman is fertile or not by looking for a few signs. They are:
- Heavy bleeding during pregnancy.
- Pain during sexual intercourse.
- Irregular menstrual periods.
- Medical conditions like polycystic ovarian disease and endometriosis.
- The female partner not getting pregnant after having unprotected sexual intercourse for more than one year.
Reports have mentioned that the infertility rate is high in the U.S. Approximately 12% of the American population is affected by infertility. About ten people out of 100 are known to be suffering from infertility conditions. This might be due to the changes in lifestyle and food habits.
Ovulation kits and follicle-stimulating hormone test kits are available in medical shops. It can be used to detect ovulation days. It is performed by collecting urine samples. The directions for usage will be mentioned in the kit. After collecting the urine drops, the test kit is placed on a flat surface. It will provide clear results.
The cause of the infertility condition should be sorted out first. This will aid in choosing ideal treatment options. If the cause is due to pathological conditions, then it is necessary to get medical treatment for those health issues. The most promising treatment option is in vitro fertilization method. If the reason for infertility is a psychological reason, then the patient requires psychological counseling.
In males, there is no particular time that is considered suitable for pregnancy. The woman contributes to a greater part in terms of conceiving. The woman has to be on her ovulation period. The 14 days before the beginning of the menstrual period is considered the high fertile period. It is applicable for women who are having a regular period cycle of 28 days. Having sexual intercourse without any protection will increase the chance of conceiving.
The best drug for fertility in women is Clomiphene citrate. This drug will not require prescriptions from a doctor. It is known to regulate ovulation in women. This is also known to trigger ovulation. In people who are suffering from polycystic ovarian disease, doctors prescribe Metformin for decreasing the resistance to insulin. This will, in turn, elevate the chances of getting pregnant.
The signs of infertility in men are:
- Problems with sexual function. It might include ejaculating a minimal quantity of semen.
- Ejaculation difficulty, difficulty in maintaining an erection, and decreased sexual desire.
- Recurrent respiratory infections.
- Swelling or a lump in the testicle area.
- Pain in the testicle area.
- Inability to smell.
- Decreased body or facial hair or other signs of a hormonal or chromosomal abnormality.
- Abnormal breast growth (gynecomastia).
- Low sperm count. The total sperm count of less than 39 million per ejaculation or less than 15 million sperm per milliliter is considered infertile.
The condition of endometriosis has a direct influence on the fertility of women. Endometriosis causes inflammation in the pelvis or impairment in the implantation process. This can contribute to infertility. In such conditions, the egg’s quality is altered, and there will be an imbalance in the hormones. In some patients, the immunity function is known to be reduced due to endometriosis.
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease. It is known to affect the reproductive organs due to conditions such as pelvic inflammatory disease that has been caused due to the infections with gonorrhea. It also causes problems in the fallopian tube. In severe complications, gonorrhea will end up causing infertility in women.
The doctors use different diagnostic tools to diagnose infertility problems. They are:
- Ovulation testing.
- Ovarian reserve testing.
- Imaging tests.
The effective drug that is given for infertility is Clomid. This drug is available over the counter and will not require any prescription from the doctor. It is better to get checked with the doctor to get a complete idea of your infertility issue.
Fertility pills are known to function like a naturally occurring hormone. It will act like follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. The working of these pills is known to stimulate the process of ovulation in women. It will trigger another egg production or another quality egg to be produced.
Many vitamins can help to increase fertility in women; they are:
- Folic Acid.
- Vitamin E.
- Vitamin D.
- Fish Oil.
- Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10).
Many types of research suggest that turmeric is known to be beneficial for overcoming conditions such as endometriosis, polycystic ovarian disease, and other fertility disorders. Turmeric is rich in antioxidants, but there is no scientific proof for its effects on fertility. You should discuss with your doctor to identify which food items would be suitable for you.
There is a common misunderstanding that low-fat milk products like yogurt will help you maintain a healthy weight. It might be partially correct. But, when it comes to fertility, yogurt is known to be a supporting ingredient. Yogurt can elevate the levels of fertility in the long-run. It is good to choose yogurt once a day.
The infertility condition becomes permanent only in a few male patients. In most of the cases, it is treatable. There are many natural remedies for infertility in men. Acupuncture and yoga are known to be effective. Drinking green tea regularly can enhance your fertility. Vitamin supplementation can promote fertility. Above all, a positive attitude is required.
By eating healthy foods, sperm count can be increased naturally. Foods that can help enhance sperm count are eggs, dark chocolate, goji berries, garlic, bananas, spinach, walnuts, oysters, pomegranate, walnuts, zinc-rich food, pumpkin seed, etc
Last reviewed at:
22 Mar 2022 - 7 min read
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