Nutraceuticals provide dietary demands while also improving health by halting the development of degenerative disorders. Nutraceuticals, therefore, have enormous promise for enhancing human nutrition and health. The concepts of nutrition and pharmaceutical combined to form the term nutraceutical, which refers to food that promotes health by delaying the onset of illness or treating it. Nutraceuticals are currently being studied for their impact on angiogenesis, linked to various pathological conditions such as cancer, diabetes, age-related macular degeneration, and retinopathy of prematurity. Nutraceuticals have already been used to treat diabetes, depression, arthritis, and inflammation. According to research, substances included in meals like green tea, red grapes, kale, and artichokes may also prevent angiogenesis.
What Is the Angiogenesis Pathway?
Angiogenesis is the creation of new blood vessels from an existing vascular network that drives organ growth. It is essential for efficient wound healing. It is also required for ovulation, hair growth, and organ development. Moreover, the two most significant illnesses in which it plays a crucial role are atherosclerosis and cancer. As a result, controlling angiogenesis is a crucial treatment strategy for maintaining human health.
What Is Anti-angiogenesis?
A critical stage in tissue growth was the development of new blood vessels, and tumor angiogenesis was a byproduct of aging tumor cells.
Tumors may be maintained in check and placed into a latent condition by limiting the development of new vasculature. Since then, the "anti-angiogenesis" idea has dominated research into developing drugs to treat solid tumors.
Numerous anti-angiogenesis medications have been created with the idea of "starving tumors to death" by targeting the tumor vasculature.
Metastatic masses and large tumors develop by forming new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis.
What Is an Anti-angiogenic Compound?
A medication or substance that prevents the growth of new blood vessels. Antiangiogenesis medications may stop the development of new blood vessels that tumors require to grow during cancer treatment. Specific forms of colon, lung, and breast tumors, as well as other malignancies, have been authorized for treatment with medications that stop the process of angiogenesis or blood vessel formation. Two types of anti-angiogenic compounds exist. The first class of inhibitors, commonly referred to as direct angiogenesis inhibitors, includes those that are more sensitive to endothelial cells than tumor cells. On the other hand, the additional type of inhibitors is known as indirect inhibitors, which may not directly affect endothelial cells but may still control angiogenesis by suppressing an angiogenesis stimulator.
What Are Nutraceuticals Used as Anti-angiogenic Agents?
1. Vitamin D:
One of the essential nutraceuticals, vitamin D, has the anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and pro-differentiating properties of its active metabolite, calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3). In addition, vitamin D inhibits tumor angiogenesis as one of its anticancer properties, which is very helpful in producing tumor regression. A growing body of research suggests that using vitamin D to treat cancer may have additional health benefits, such as reducing tumor metastasis and angiogenesis, as well as the anti-cancer effects of its anti-inflammatory properties. Hence, vitamin D has roles in cancer chemotherapy and chemoprevention, focusing on its anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic properties.
2. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG):
A special plant chemical called epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is receiving a lot of interest for its potential to improve health. EGCG, sometimes referred to as epigallocatechin gallate, is a catechin, a type of plant-based chemical. Catechins can be included in a broader class of plant chemicals known as polyphenols. EGCG and other catechins with strong antioxidant capabilities may be able to stop the cellular damage caused by free radicals. Chronic conditions including, cancer, diabetes, and heart disease, are all associated with stress and inflammation. As a result, EGCG's anti-inflammatory (lessening inflammation) and antioxidant properties are considered to be one of the key factors contributing to its widespread use in disease prevention. The most prominent use of EGCG is as the primary active ingredient in green tea. Although EGCG is mostly found in green tea, it is also present in trace levels in a variety of other foods, including tea (oolong, black, and white teas), fruits (avocados, kiwis, cherries, pears, peaches, strawberries, blackberries, cranberries, and strawberries) and nuts (hazelnuts, pistachios, and pecans).
A substance called Resveratrol is a polyphenol mostly present in red grapes and foods prepared from them (wine and juice). Weight reduction and hay fever may benefit from it. The body may respond to Resveratrol in a variety of ways, including by widening blood arteries and decreasing blood clotting. Additionally, it could lessen pain and swelling, lower blood sugar levels, and support the body's immune system. The most typical illnesses for which Resveratrol is prescribed include excessive cholesterol, cancer, heart disease, and many more. However, there is little solid proof that Resveratrol has any benefit.
The Curcuma longa L. plant contains a substance called curcumin, which has a variety of pharmacological effects. However, just a few research have gathered sufficient data to support its dual impact on angiogenesis. The biological and pharmacological activities of curcumin include wound healing, cholesterol-lowering, immunomodulating, anti-HIV, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anticarcinogenic action, and antioxidant activity. One of the most active areas of research in recent years has been cancer; curcumin has received attention as a natural substance with no toxicity and potential for tumor treatment. Pathological angiogenesis is a sign of cancer, and curcumin's antiangiogenesis action in numerous ischemic and inflammatory diseases shows that curcumin has a great deal of potential as an anticancer therapy since it is a natural substance with exceptional safety and low toxicity.
Nutraceuticals provide a less expensive and more widely available form of anti-angiogenic treatment in addition to its effectiveness in treating disorders linked to angiogenesis. Herbs, nutrients, vitamins, minerals, probiotics, and other ingredients can all be found in nutraceuticals and dietary supplements. These biomolecules have been shown to have anti-tumor action when examined as individual agents. As a result, when present in whole foods, the mechanism of action and the metabolic pathway are yet unknown. Additionally, it is theorized that the combination of various compounds found in food has more excellent anticancer effects than when a single isolated drug is used. As a result, developing nutraceuticals as anti-angiogenic agents would offer more affordable and effective treatments for disorders linked to angiogenesis and benefit patients by improving their nutritional status.