Sepsis is a medical emergency, as it causes multiple organ failure. When the body's response to infection in the blood starts affecting its tissues and organs, it is called sepsis.
Sepsis is a severe inflammatory response to infection. It can be fatal. Usually, the body releases chemicals into the bloodstream to fight against any infection in the body. But, when this defense mechanism is out of control, it leads to a severe condition called sepsis.
Septicemia is nothing but having the causative bacteria in the bloodstream that leads to sepsis.
Any infection can lead to sepsis, for example bacterial, viral or fungal. But, the following are the most commonly seen:
2. Digestive system infection, mainly involving the stomach and colon.
3. Urinary tract infection.
4. Infection in the bloodstream (bacteremia).
An adultpatient must have at least two of the following symptoms along with proven infection:
1. Altered mental status like mental confusion, delirium, etc.
2. Rapid respiratory rate (more than 22 breaths per minute)
3. Low blood pressure (less than 100 mm Hg).
The other common signs and symptoms associated with sepsis are:
1. Increased heart rate.
4. Chills, dizziness, fatigue.
6. Shortness of breath.
7. Facial flushing.
8. Decreased urine production.
Septic shock is a dangerous condition and is characterized by severe drop in systolic blood pressure, pale and cool extremities, deceased or absence of urine output, short and rapid breath, fast heart rate, behavioral and temperature changes.
There are basically three stages of sepsis:
Stage 1: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
A very low or high fever, increased heart rate, and respiratory rate, difference in white blood cells count and infection.
Stage 2: Severe Sepsis
Acute dysfunction of organ starts. Sepsis is present with low blood pressure or decreased blood flow to an organ.
Stage 3: Septic Shock
Most severe stage. There is the presence of low blood pressure due to sepsis, despite resuscitation by fluids. There is the presence of elevated lactate levels and has the highest chance of death.
Sepsis is not contagious or transmissible. But, it does spread throughout the body in an infected person. But, in some cases depending on the condition, it can infect other people too. Hence, it is necessary to maintain personal hygiene.
There is no specific incubation period for sepsis. It totally depends on the type of infection, microorganisms involved and the host.
The following are at greater risk of sepsis:
1. Very young or elderly.
2. Illness due to an infectious agent.
3. Patients in ICU.
4. Weak immune system.
5. Medical history of some previous illness.
6. Patients using devices like IV catheters, breathing tubes, etc.
7. Extensive burns.
8. Trauma or severe injury.
It may affectthe blood flow to organs and even the formation of clots in organs leading to tissue death and organ failure.
Initially, a blood test will be done to diagnose any infection in the bloodstream, followed by urine tests, mucous and wound secretion tests. If required, MRI, CT, ultrasound and X-rays can be done.
Sepsis can progress to septic shock very easily and hence, immediate management with following medications is done:
Antibiotics are given through IV to cure the infection.
Vasoactive medicines which will increase blood pressure.
Insulin will maintain blood sugar levels.
Corticosteroids will control or minimize inflammation.
Analgesics to manage pain.
In severe sepsis. IV fluids may be necessary along with assistance for breathing. Dialysis may be required in cases of kidney infection.
Sometimes, even surgeries may be carried out to remove the infected tissue or draining a pus-filled abscess. This is aimed to remove the source of infection.
It depends on the severity of sepsis and the patient’s health status. But, patients with septic shock have high chances of death.
It is necessary to maintain good health and hygiene and getting vaccinated to stay away from infections. If there is a wound or injury, get tetanus injection as per protocol, if required along with maintaining the wound hygiene. In case of any infection, get treated from the doctor as soon as possible and this mainly applies to people with high-risk status.
Sepsis in newborn is also called as Neonatal sepsis or sepsis neonatorum. It involves any infection affecting the infant during the first 28 days of birth or life. The infection may involve the whole body or just one organ.
Sepsis in geriatric patients has the most common source as respiratory or genito-urinary tract infections. They are at high risk of getting infections from multidrug-resistant organisms.
Sepsis is a dangerous condition and can lead to death if not managed properly and on time. With the help of online medical platforms, it has become easy to get guided and diagnosed about sepsis along with guidance on the treatment plan.
Last reviewed at:
19 Jun 2019 - 3 min read
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