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Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) - Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Published on Dec 24, 2016 and last reviewed on Jun 06, 2022   -  4 min read

Abstract

Irritable bowel syndrome is an annoying gastrointestinal disease due to its chronic nature and various symptoms experienced affecting everyday life.

Contents
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) - Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

What Is Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disturbance of colonic motility without organic causes. IBS is characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habits. With IBS, you may experience these symptoms without any visible signs of disease or damage to your digestive tract.

What Are the Causes of Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

The exact cause behind IBS remains unknown. The other factors that can cause IBS is,

1) Muscle Contractions in the Intestine:

The intestinal walls are lined by layers of muscles that contract when food moves through the digestive tract. Weak intestinal contractions slow food passage and cause hard, dry stools. Contractions that are stronger and last longer than usual cause gas, bloating, and diarrhea.

2) Problems in the Nerve Signaling:

Abnormalities in the nerves of the digestive system may cause more significant discomfort when the abdomen stretches from gas or stool. Poorly coordinated signals between the brain and the intestines can make your body overreact to changes in the digestive process, causing pain, diarrhea, or constipation.

3) Severe Infection:

IBS can occur after a severe bout of diarrhea (gastroenteritis) caused by a bacteria or virus.

4) Stress:

People exposed to stressful life events, especially in childhood, are more likely to develop IBS.

5) Changes in Gut Microbes:

Changes in the bacteria, fungi, or viruses which generally reside in the small intestine also play a key role in developing IBS.

What Are the Symptoms Experienced in Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

IBS is known to have a long history with a long interval period. The symptoms include abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, abdominal distention, and others.

1) Abdominal Pain:

  1. Recurrent abdominal pain over any part of the colon, but more common in the left abdominal quadrant.

  2. Diffuse and cramping pain with no radiation.

  3. The pain will increase with food and improve by defecation.

  4. Some women with irritable bowel syndrome notice an association between pain episodes and their menstrual cycle.

2) Changes in Bowel Habits:

There are changes in bowel habits that overlap between constipation and diarrhea, but constipation is more common.

3) Abdominal Distention:

It includes bloating, gas and belching.

4) Other Symptoms:

  1. Patients with IBS often complain of anxiety, depression, and tension headaches.

  2. Dyspepsia, heartburn, nausea, and vomiting are also common.

  3. Comorbid conditions include fibromyalgia, and stress-related symptoms may also occur.

How to Diagnose Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

There is no definitive test available to diagnose IBS. Your doctor might start asking about complete medical history, physical examination, and tests to rule out other conditions such as celiac disease.

IBS is a diagnosis of exclusion, so after excluding diseases that share with IBS, the doctor may try to look for Rome criteria III. The patient is observed for having recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort for at least three days in a month during the previous three months that is associated with two or more of the following:

  1. Relieved by defecation.

  2. Onset associated with a change in stool frequency.

  3. Onset associated with a change in stool form or appearance.

The supporting symptoms include altered stool frequency, altered stool form, altered stool passage (straining or urgency), mucorrhea, abdominal bloating, or subjective distention.

If you face other symptoms, the doctor might recommend doing additional tests such as stool studies, colonoscopy, X-ray or CT (computed tomography) scan, upper endoscopy, lactose intolerance tests, and breath test for bacterial overgrowth.

How to Treat Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

Treatment of IBS focuses on relieving symptoms so that you can live as normally as possible. Mild signs and symptoms are controlled by managing stress and making changes in the diet and lifestyle. Avoid foods that trigger symptoms, eat high-fiber foods, drink plenty of fluids, exercise regularly, get enough sleep, and avoid coffee, tea, and smoking.

Your doctor might also advise avoiding

1) Taking high gas foods.

2) Gluten.

3) FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) from your diet.

Usually, a high-fiber diet improves the symptoms of constipation and diarrhea.

In case of depression, the doctor might advise counseling. Based on other symptoms, the doctor might prescribe medications such as,

1) Antispasmodics: Peppermint oil, Pinaverium, Trimebutine, Cimetropium, or Dicyclomine might help.

2) Antidiarrheal Medications: Diphenoxylate and Loperamide might also be taken to control diarrhea.

3) Laxatives: To improve constipation, your doctor might recommend over-the-counter laxatives, such as magnesium hydroxide oral or polyethylene glycol.

4) Anti Anxiety Drugs like Diazepam (Valium), Lorazepam (Ativan), and Clonazepam (Klonopin) belong to this class of drugs. Antianxiety drugs are occasionally prescribed for people with short-term anxiety, worsening their irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. However, these drugs should only be taken for a short period since they can be addictive.

5) Tegaserod (Zelmac) comes under a class of drugs called serotonin agonists. It helps activate serotonin receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. It also increases bowel movement and reduces constipation.

What Are the Essential Tips to Know About Ibs?

Some tips about IBS that make you understand your symptoms are as follows:

  1. Remember, it is a chronic disease.

  2. Not associated with weight loss.

  3. Not associated with steatorrhea or greasy, fatty stool.

  4. Not associated with bloody diarrhea.

What Are the Lifestyle Changes That Help?

Simple changes in diet with lifestyle modification might help to control IBS. Try to,

1) Take More Fibers:

Fiber reduces constipation but worsens gas and cramping. Try increasing the amount of fiber in your diet with whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and grains over a while. But taking fiber supplements causes less gas and bloating than fiber-rich foods.

2) Avoid Taking Triggering Foods:

Avoid taking foods that trigger IBS.

3) Eat at Regular Times:

If you have diarrhea, you can try to eat small, frequent meals which make you feel better. But if you are constipated, eating large amounts of high-fiber foods may help move food through your intestines. Do not skip meals, and try to eat at the same time each day to regulate bowel function.

4) Exercise Regularly:

Exercise helps relieve depression and stress, stimulates regular contractions of your intestines, and can help you feel better about yourself.

Conclusion:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder that affects the large intestine. The signs and symptoms noticed are cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, diarrhea, or constipation. Only a few portions of people with IBS have severe signs and symptoms, and some people can control their symptoms by managing their diet, lifestyle, and stress. People with more severe symptoms can be treated with medication and counseling.

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Last reviewed at:
06 Jun 2022  -  4 min read

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