iCliniq logo

Ask a Doctor Online Now

HomeHealth articlestyrosinemiaWhat Is Tyrosinemia?

Tyrosinemia - Causes, Symptoms, and Management

Verified dataVerified data
0

4 min read

Share

Tyrosinemia occurs due to the body's accumulation of the amino acid tyrosine. Read below to learn about the same.

Medically reviewed by

Dr. Kaushal Bhavsar

Published At April 13, 2023
Reviewed AtMay 6, 2024

Introduction:

Tyrosine is an amino acid important for the production of proteins and several important molecules in the body. It is a non-essential amino acid, which means that the body can produce it from other amino acids, and is not required in the diet. Tyrosinemia is a rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of the amino acid tyrosine. The condition is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), which is responsible for breaking down tyrosine and its by-products. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, which means two copies of the gene, one from each parent, are needed to inherit the disorder.

What Is the Prevalence of Tyrosinemia?

The prevalence of tyrosinemia is rare, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 100,000 individuals worldwide. However, the exact prevalence of the disorder may vary depending on the population and geographic location. Type I tyrosinemia is the most common and severe disorder, accounting for most cases. Type II and III are less severe and less common forms of the disorder.

What Are the Types of Tyrosinemia?

There are three types of tyrosinemia, each caused by mutations in different genes:

  • Type I - This is the most common and severe disorder. Mutations cause it in the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) gene. Symptoms typically appear in the first few months of life and can include liver damage, an enlarged liver and spleen, jaundice, and an increased risk of liver cancer.

  • Type II - This is caused by mutations in the tyrosine transaminase (TAT) gene. Symptoms may include skin rashes and developmental delays but typically do not cause liver damage.

  • Type III - This is caused by mutations in the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPD) gene. Symptoms may include mild intellectual disability but typically do not cause liver damage.

What Are the Symptoms of Tyrosinemia?

Symptoms of tyrosinemia can vary depending on the type of the disorder.

1. Symptoms of Type I - It is the most severe form. Symptoms include the following-

  • Liver Damage - As the toxic by-products of tyrosine accumulate in the liver, it leads to inflammation and damage to the liver cells, which can cause liver failure.

  • An Enlarged Liver and Spleen (Hepatosplenomegaly) - The liver and spleen can enlarge due to the accumulation of toxic by-products.

  • Jaundice - Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes due to the accumulation of bilirubin, a breakdown product of red blood cells, which is not excreted properly by the liver.

  • Failure to Thrive - Infants with tyrosinemia type I may not gain weight and grow as expected.

  • Vomiting - Due to the accumulation of toxic by-products, the child may experience nausea and vomiting.

  • Diarrhea - Due to malabsorption of nutrients.

  • An Increased Risk of Liver Cancer - The accumulation of toxic by-products can lead to liver tumors.

2. Symptoms of Type II -A less severe form of tyrosinemia. Symptoms may include the following-

  • Skin Rashes - The accumulation of tyrosine by-products can lead to skin rashes and discoloration.

  • Developmental Delays - The accumulation of tyrosine by-products may lead to developmental delays and intellectual disability.

3. Symptoms of Type III - A less severe form of tyrosinemia. Symptoms may include the following-

  • Mild Intellectual Disability - The accumulation of tyrosine by-products may lead to developmental delays and intellectual disability.

How to Diagnose Tyrosinemia?

Diagnosis of tyrosinemia typically involves a combination of genetic testing, blood tests, and liver function tests.

1. Genetic Testing -

  • Genetic testing is done to confirm tyrosinemia's diagnosis and identify the disorder's specific type.

  • Genetic testing can identify mutations in the genes that cause the disorder, such as the FAH, TAT, and HPD genes.

  • Genetic testing can be done via blood or saliva samples and is available for all tyrosinemia types.

2. Blood Tests -

  • Blood tests can measure the levels of tyrosine and its by-products, which can be elevated in individuals with tyrosinemia.

  • Blood tests can also measure the levels of liver enzymes, which can be elevated in individuals with liver damage.

  • Blood tests can also detect jaundice by measuring the level of bilirubin.

3. Liver Function Tests -

  • Liver tests assess the liver's health and detect any damage.

  • These tests include measuring the levels of various liver enzymes, albumin, and prothrombin time, which can indicate liver function.

  • Imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT (computed tomography), or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) can also be used to assess the size and condition of the liver and spleen.

What Is the Treatment of Tyrosinemia?

Treatment for tyrosinemia typically involves a combination of dietary management, medication, and, in some cases, liver transplantation.

1. Dietary Management -

  • A low-tyrosine and low-phenylalanine diet is typically recommended for individuals with tyrosinemia type I.

  • This can help to reduce the accumulation of toxic by-products in the body and prevent further damage to the liver.

  • A registered dietitian can help to develop a suitable diet plan that meets the individual's nutritional needs.

2. Medication -

  • Nitisinone is the most common medication used to treat tyrosinemia type I.

  • Nitisinone helps to prevent the buildup of toxic by-products in the body and can improve liver function and overall health in affected individuals.

  • Medications may also treat the disorder's symptoms, such as liver damage, jaundice, and nausea.

3. Liver Transplantation -

  • Sometimes, liver transplantation may be necessary for individuals with tyrosinemia type I.

  • A liver transplant is a surgical procedure in which a healthy liver is transplanted into the body of an individual with tyrosinemia.

  • This can help to restore liver function and prevent further damage to the liver.

4. Additional Care -

  • Additionally, regular monitoring and follow-up are essential for individuals with tyrosinemia.

  • Individuals with tyrosinemia may also benefit from physical and occupational therapy to help them with developmental delays or mobility issues. Additionally, psychological support may be beneficial for individuals and their families to help them cope with the emotional and social impacts of the disorder.

What Is the Prognosis of Tyrosinemia?

The prognosis for individuals with tyrosinemia can vary depending on the type of the disorder and the severity of the symptoms. With proper management and treatment, individuals with tyrosinemia type II and III can have a relatively average life expectancy and good quality of life. However, the prognosis is generally worse for individuals with tyrosinemia type I, as this disorder can cause severe liver damage and, in some cases, liver cancer.

Conclusion:

Tyrosinemia is a rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of the amino acid tyrosine and has three different types. Early diagnosis, regular monitoring, and a tailored treatment plan, including dietary management, medication, and in some cases, liver transplantation, can help manage the symptoms and prevent serious complications. Regular follow-up care and support are also crucial for individuals and their families to help them cope with the disorder. It is also important to note that some research and clinical trials are in progress to improve tyrosinemia's treatment options and outcomes. With new developments in genetic medicine, there is hope for new treatments, such as gene therapy, to become available.

Frequently Asked Questions

1.

What Are the Food Products to Be Avoided With Tyrosinemia?

The food products to be avoided with tyrosinemia are dairy products, meats, and protein-rich foods such as beans and nuts. It is essential to take a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals, which will allow the children to grow normally.

2.

Is Tyrosinemia Autosomal Recessive?

Tyrosinemia is an autosomal recessive pattern where both copies of the gene in each cell must have a variant to cause the disorder. In Tyrosenemia type1, mutant alleles in the gene are inherited from both parents. The genetic mutation occurs in the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase enzyme gene on chromosome 15.

3.

Which Enzyme Breaks Down the Tyrosine?

Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolyzes is the enzyme that breaks down the tyrosine, made with the FAH gene's instruction. This enzyme performs the last step of tyrosine breakdown, and the first step in the process is performed by the enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase produced from the TAT gene.

4.

What Is the Survival Rate of Tyrosinemia Type 1?

When treated, the survival rate of tyrosinemia type 1 is more than 90 percent. Treatment also helps with normal growth and liver function, renal tubular acidosis can be corrected, and secondary rickets can be resolved.

5.

What Is the Dose of Tyrosine Per Day?

Tyrosine is an amino acid that is naturally produced in the body from another amino acid called phenylalanine. The dose of tyrosine per day is 500 to 1500 mg, according to the manufacturer's recommendation, and the dose should not be more than 12 grams daily.

6.

What Causes Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency?

Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern and caused by mutations of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene. Mutation in the tyrosine hydroxylase gene causes tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency. The tyrosine hydroxylase gene provides instructions for making the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, which is the most important for normal nervous system functioning.

7.

Can Tyrosinemia 1 Occur in Adults?

Tyrosinemia 1 is of two types. The most common one is caused in children, and the less common type is seen in adults. In Tyrosenemia type1, mutant alleles in the gene are inherited from both parents. The genetic mutation occurs in the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase enzyme gene on chromosome 15.

8.

What Is the Normal Level of Tyrosine?

The normal level of tyrosine is 30 to 120 micromol/L. It is considered elevated when the value exceeds 200 micromol/ L. The dose of tyrosine per day is 500 to 1500 mg, according to the manufacturer's recommendation, and the dose should not be more than 12 grams daily.

9.

How Does Tyrosinemia Type 1 Cause Jaundice?

The deficiency in the gene for fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase on chromosome 15q23-q25 causes tyrosinemia type 1, and this type causes neonatal jaundice, hepatocellular carcinoma, and Fanconi syndrome.

10.

Who Are the Carriers of Tyrosinemia?

Tyrosinemia condition is rarely seen in parents of children with type 1 tyrosinemia. Still, each parent has a single non-working FAH gene called carrier, and carriers are unaffected by the disorder.

11.

Tyrosinemia Was Discovered by Whom?

Tyrosinemia was discovered by Sakai and Kitagawa in 1957 in Japan. They both reported the clinical and biochemical findings of tyrosinemia in patients.

12.

What Is the Cause of Tyrosinemia?

The lack of enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase causes tyrosinemia type I, and the lack of enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase causes tyrosinemia type lI.

13.

Which Hormone Is Produced by Tyrosine?

Tyrosine is an amino acid and is synthesized by the body from phenylalanine. The hormones produced by tyrosine are thyroid hormones such as thyroxine.

Dr. Kaushal Bhavsar
Dr. Kaushal Bhavsar

Pulmonology (Asthma Doctors)

Tags:

tyrosinemia
Community Banner Mobile
By subscribing, I agree to iCliniq's Terms & Privacy Policy.

Source Article ArrowMost popular articles

Ask your health query to a doctor online

Internal Medicine

*guaranteed answer within 4 hours

Disclaimer: No content published on this website is intended to be a substitute for professional medical diagnosis, advice or treatment by a trained physician. Seek advice from your physician or other qualified healthcare providers with questions you may have regarding your symptoms and medical condition for a complete medical diagnosis. Do not delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice because of something you have read on this website. Read our Editorial Process to know how we create content for health articles and queries.

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. iCliniq privacy policy