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Non-Coronary Cardiac Intervention

Published on Mar 17, 2023   -  4 min read


Cardiac interventions are procedures that prevent and treat cardiovascular health issues. Read the article below to learn more about them.


Along with age, the burden of peripheral artery disease increases. The treatments for these conditions are largely performed by vascular surgeons, interventional radiologists, and interventional cardiologists. A strong relationship between cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and peripheral artery disease plays a greater role in managing peripheral artery disease. Endovascular interventions play a key role in relieving the symptoms and reducing the morbidity of peripheral artery disease. Long-term optimal medical treatment is important for the determinant of the prognosis.

Most of the percutaneous interventional procedures involve the coronary arteries in the development of non-coronary transcatheter cardiac procedures. The common procedures are ethanol septal ablation, mitral balloon valvuloplasty, and septal defect closure. These conditions are treated by surgery, but selected individuals can offer less invasive alternatives.

What Is Non-coronary Cardiac Intervention?

Non-coronary cardiac interventions are minimally invasive procedures that identify any impairment which helps improve the blood flow of the heart and the rest of the body. In this procedure, small flexible tubes called catheters are used, depending on the heart disease, and involves threading a small balloon catheter in the septal artery supplying the culprit area. Once the artery is identified, the catheter balloon is inflated completely, and a small amount of dehydrated ethanol is injected through the central lumen catheter into the distal septal artery. This can cause immediate localized myocardial infarction and vessel occlusion. This procedure is performed under local anesthesia with an adequate amount of sedation. Individuals inevitably experience chest discomfort during ethanol injection with intravenous opiate analgesics. Individuals are mostly discharged within four to five days of the procedure.

What Are the Types of Non-coronary Cardiac Interventions?

The types of non-coronary cardiac interventions are

  • Carotid stenting.

  • Cardiac catheterization or angiogram.

  • Alcohol septal ablation.

  • Percutaneous coronary intervention or angioplasty.

  • Balloon mitral valvuloplasty.

  • Balloon aortic valvuloplasty.

  • Patent foramen ovale closure.

  • Left atrial appendage closure.

The above procedures are guided by a live X-ray and, in some cases, by an ultrasound. Mostly performed under local anesthesia and, in some cases, requires general anesthesia.

Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty:

Acquired mitral stenosis is a common consequence of rheumatic fever. Thickening, commissural fusion, and calcification of the mitral valve leaflets occur, as well as shortening and thickening of the chordae tendineae. This stenosis leads to left atrial enlargement. Predisposition leads to atrial fibrillation and the formation of left thrombosis. Balloon valvuloplasty is developed that can open the fused mitral commissures. A fall in pressure gradient and increased mitral valve opening led to symptomatic improvement. The femoral vein, passed across the atrial septum by septal way procedure, is positioned across the stenosed mitral valve before inflation.

Complications of Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty

The major complications are:

  • Death.

  • Cerebrovascular embolization.

  • Severe mitral regurgitation.

  • Hemopericardium.

  • Atrial septal defect.

Balloon valvuloplasty can be repeated if commissural restenosis occurs.

Contraindication: Presence of pre-existing significant mitral regurgitation and left atrial thrombus. A substantial increase in mitral regurgitation is seen in successful balloon valvuloplasty.

Septal Defect Closure:

Congenital abnormalities like atrial septal defects are characterized by structural deficiency by the atrial septum and account for 10% of congenital cardiac disease. Therefore, these are more suitable for transcatheter closure. Some atrial septal defects are closed in childhood; common forms are congenital heart defects.


  • Defects with fossa ovalis.

  • Defects with stretched diameter.

  • Defects that cause symptoms.

  • Associate cerebrovascular embolic.


  • Ostium primum defects.

  • Sinus venosus defects.

Diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography. The defect's importance depends on the size and duration of the shunt. The individuals can also develop atrial tachyarrhythmias and commonly precipitate heart failure.

Ethanol Septal Ablation:

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a condition that is caused by myocyte mutations in any one of 10 genes. Common genetic cardiovascular disease is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. It affects 1 in 500 people. The condition is mainly diagnosed by echocardiography and is characterized by unexplained hypertrophy in the non-dilated left ventricle. Common symptoms are dyspnoea, exertional syncope, and angina.


The treatment of individuals is mainly done to improve functional disability, left ventricular outflow tract, obstruction extent, and diastolic filling. Treatment includes inotropic drugs like Disopyramide, Verapamil, and beta blockers. In addition, surgical procedures like ventricular myectomy and ethanol septal ablation are done.

Patent Foramen Ovale:

A persistent flap-like opening between secundum and atrial septum primum occurs roughly in 25 % of individuals. Patent foramen ovale has no clinical importance. It may lead to paradoxical embolism in individuals with cryptogenic transient ischemic attack and stroke, right to left shunting, decompression illness in divers and right ventricular infarction, and severe pulmonary hypertension. Preventive secondary strategies are drug treatment, percutaneous closure, and surgery by a dedicated occluding device. Divers who take anticoagulants may experience bleeding in the sinuses, ears, and lungs from barotrauma.

Congenital Ventricular Septal Defects:

Untreated congenital ventricular septal defects that need intervention are rare. Percutaneous device closure of ventricular septal defects acquires complications of acute myocardial infarction.

What Is the Recovery Time After Non-coronary Cardiac Intervention?

The recovery time of the non-coronary cardiac interventions is within a week. Usual activities, physical activity, and heavy lifting may require waiting a little longer. The doctor may prescribe blood thinning medications and drugs like Prasugrel, and Clopidogrel, to lower the risk of blood clots.

When to Contact the Health Care Provider?

Immediately contact the health care provider if the following signs are noticed:

  • Chest pain.

  • Fever or chills.

  • Coolness or numbness.

  • Swelling or continuous pain.

  • Shortness of breath.

  • Dizziness and fainting.

  • Bleeding or discharge at the site of catheter insertion.


Heart attack is a serious condition and requires immediate care and treatment. Interventional cardiologists perform non-surgical procedures that use a thin, flexible tube called a catheter. These procedures unblock the clogged arteries and repair the damaged vessels. They are less invasive procedures than cardiac bypass surgery or open heart surgery. ECCA (extracranial carotid artery aneurysm) provides testing and comprehensive examination and helps diagnose the specific issue causing the symptoms. The healthcare provider understands the personalized treatment plan, and this might include medications, cardiac interventions, and lifestyle adjustments. Regular screening of cholesterol and blood pressure is done for annual examinations. These health screenings reveal an increased risk of a heart condition, and immediate action is taken.


Last reviewed at:
17 Mar 2023  -  4 min read




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