Preimplantation genetic diagnosis helps couples have their embryos tested for any genetic abnormality before implantation. It is one of the newly developed techniques to avoid IVF failure.
Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) involves the assessment of the chromosomal composition of embryos and evaluating for numerical chromosomal abnormalities with a view to selecting normal embryos for transfer. PGS should be differentiated from preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). PGD allows couples where one or both partners carry a known genetic condition to have their embryos tested to avoid the transfer of a genetically affected embryo.
The application of PGD has expanded, with over 200 single gene and chromosomal disorders currently amenable to PGD. It has enabled couples affected by such disorders to avoid the need to undergo prenatal diagnosis.
What is PGD?
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a ray of hope for the couples with metabolic disorders, single gene disorder, X-linked disorder, translocation and severe male factor infertility. In this procedure, patients are given injections for ovarian stimulation like normal IVF (in vitro fertilization). Eggs are removed and ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) is done. Embryo biopsy can be done on day 3 or trophectoderm biopsy on day 5. The single cell is removed from the embryo and tested for various disorders.
It is preimplantation genetic testing to identify genetic defects in embryos through IVF (in vitro fertilization). Only unaffected embryos are transferred into the uterus for implantation. PGD is alternative to post conception testing like amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling, which are difficult. It is an attractive way of preventing heritable genetic diseases
Who Should Go for PGD?
Need for PGD:
Other Newer Techniques:
The conventional method of diagnosis of genetic defects is by a technique called PCR that is polymerase chain reaction. This is used to detect target specific whole chromosomal anomalies like Trisomy 13, 18 and 21 and sex chromosomal anomalies X and Y. It is relatively cheap and rapid to provide results within 48 hours to 72hours. Recent advances in the field of preimplantation genetic testing are,
FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization) is a useful adjunct to full conventional karyotyping when a high degree of suspicion of specific chromosome abnormality is present.
CGH (Comparative Genomic Hybridization) provides a higher detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities and more definitive diagnosis. The only drawback is the high cost.
Other newer technologies include NGS (Next Generation Sequencing). This technology allows sequencing DNA as well as RNA more quickly and can give complete genetic mapping.
To know more about preimplant genetic diagnosis, consult an infertility specialist online --> https://www.icliniq.com/ask-a-doctor-online/infertility-specialist
Last reviewed at:
30 May 2022 - 3 min read
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