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Ewing sarcoma - Types, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Published on Mar 17, 2022 and last reviewed on Jun 23, 2022   -  5 min read

Abstract

Ewing sarcoma is a cancerous condition usually affecting children, especially in the first decade of life. Read this article to learn more about it.

Contents

What Is Sarcoma?

Cancer conditions are named differently depending on the place of occurrence in the body. Cancer that can occur on the bone and muscles are known as sarcoma. If the sarcoma occurs on the soft tissues like nerves, blood vessels, muscles, and fat, then it is mentioned as soft tissue sarcoma. More than 70 types of sarcoma have been recorded, and each one has a different presentation and mode of treatment. Among them, angiosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and liposarcoma are the common ones.

What Is Ewing Sarcoma?

Ewing sarcoma is a type of bone cancer that has a very rare occurrence. It is known to affect younger children and teenagers, especially in the first decade of life. The cancer is generally known to start from the long bones of the body and the pelvic bones. The classical site of occurrence is diaphysis of long bones. However, it has the capacity to start from any part of the bone. In cases where soft tissue involvement is seen, it begins in the abdomen, chest, and limbs. Both males and females are known to be affected by Ewing sarcoma. The other names of Ewing sarcoma are round cell sarcoma or PNET (peripheral neuroectodermal tumor). It is possible to cure the patients with Ewing sarcoma, but long-term monitoring is required.

What Are the Types of Ewing Sarcoma?

There are three types of Ewing sarcoma. They are:

What Are the Causes of Ewing Sarcoma?

The actual cause for Ewing sarcoma is not identified. Some genetic mutations have contributed to the sarcoma condition. The prime functioning of the cell depends on the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) material. It sends a command to the other cells for regulating the functions. If there is any miscommunication due to the mutations, it might result in genetic problems and abnormal cell growth. These abnormal cells begin to spread and cause the destruction of healthy cells. In Ewing sarcoma, there is an alteration in the gene EWSR1. People who are having severe exposure to radiation are also known to be affected by Ewing sarcoma.

What Are the Symptoms of Ewing Sarcoma?

Patients who are having Ewing sarcoma might experience pain in the involved region. It might be seen along with stiffness in that area. An important characteristic of cancer is pain in the affected region that has been lasting for a prolonged duration of time. The other symptoms associated with Ewing sarcoma are:

What Are the Risk Factors of Ewing Sarcoma?

The risk factors associated with Ewing sarcoma are:

How Is Ewing Sarcoma Diagnosed?

Diagnosis requires the following procedures and tests:

What Are the Treatment Options for Ewing Sarcoma?

The first-line treatment of Ewing sarcoma is chemotherapy.

Conclusion:

Ewing sarcoma is a cancer of the bone that can be completely treated when detected at the early stages. However, long-term observation is needed. In this type of sarcoma, chemotherapy is first done to reduce the tumor size which is then followed by radiation therapy and surgery. Since Ewing sarcoma most commonly affects children below the age of ten years, prolonged pain at a particular site should not be neglected. Reach out to healthcare professionals if there is severe pain for long periods to rule out Ewing sarcoma.

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Last reviewed at:
23 Jun 2022  -  5 min read

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Dr. Anuj Gupta

Dr. Anuj Gupta

Orthopedics And Traumatology

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