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Vaccine Strategy for the Changing World - An Overview

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Developing a vaccine strategy for the changing world is important for better vaccine efficiency.

Written by

Dr. Syed Shafaq

Medically reviewed by

Dr. Pandian. P

Published At February 6, 2024
Reviewed AtFebruary 6, 2024

Introduction:

Generally, programs that are involved in successful immunization result due to the efficiency of the vaccine and accurate uptake of the vaccine. While developing new vaccines, the strength and strategies of the healthcare system are the key to be considered. In countries with high income, the infrastructure is used, and in lesser developed countries, the vaccine needs to be strengthened, usually the vaccine that is administered after early childhood. These vaccines usually include measles and human papilloma vaccine. Vaccine funding is also required in low-income countries as an extra finance source.

The successful eradication of smallpox raised hopes for more vaccines and controlling infectious diseases. This led to an expanded program on immunization in 1974 initiated by the World Health Organisation. Vaccination programs are the cornerstone of good public health.

The benefits of successful vaccine strategies are providing direct protective effects on the individual, and also, in some cases, it provides positive effects even in unvaccinated individuals.

What Are the Principles for Vaccine Strategies?

The main objective of developing a new vaccine is to meet reduction goals for a disease by providing a high immunity level in a given population through adequate immunization coverage and the vaccine's efficiency. The target of the program developed for vaccination makes the strategy vary accordingly. The most effective method includes targeting populations at higher risk of developing disease and more prone to complications.

The difficulty lies in reaching the vaccine to a population at higher risk of developing the infection since there may be a failure in the healthcare system to ensure that all the people are receiving the recommended vaccines.

The effectiveness of a vaccine increases when age-based strategies are added to strategies with high-risk groups.

A single cohort approach allows the population to receive the recommended dose at a specific time. The double cohort approach simultaneously speeds up the vaccine impact by vaccinating infants and adolescents.

Mass vaccination is also recommended for herd immunization, disease reduction, and disease mode of transmission. This may be used for cases such as epidemics is polio in the 1950s and also recent COVID-19 infection.

Various factors are responsible for the feasibility of vaccine strategy in a given population. This usually includes demographic composition, such as the age of the people mostly affected and other factors, such as social factors and biological factors that cause transmission of the infection.

After confirming the efficiency of the vaccine, the strategy for introducing it includes the strength and structure of the healthcare system, funding for the service, and all the means responsible for monitoring the vaccine's success.

How Is Vaccine Strategy Implemented?

Some various groups and organizations support a framework and also encourage a successful implementation of a vaccine. Some factors are to be considered, such as the presentation of the evidence to the decision-makers, the generation of evidence, and vaccine-strengthening capacities.

The decision to introduce a new vaccine that reflects some national and local conditions. The evidence base is generated with the help of organizations such as PAHO. There are communities specified for recommendation-making on vaccine programs.

Organizations are created to guide the policies related to immunization in developing countries.

There had to be a strong monitoring program as it can have effects in Germany; the motivating varicella vaccine that was given to young children had a downward trend of the disease over time, but there was a high rising number of breakthrough infections that got reported mostly in daycare in a year suggested that the efficiency of a single dose of varicella vaccine was only 62 percent. Similarly in the USA, the outbreak of varicella virus continues even after the single monovalent dose of the vaccine was administered to children 12 to 18 months of age. This monitoring suggested the administration of dose training. The places where the two-dose administration started showed decreased varicella cases, and the recommended change had a beneficial effect and proved more effective.

What Are the Implantation Strategies?

Different strategies are employed for the implementation of vaccines. These include:

PAHO had an advanced strategy for eliminating rivals that they combined with the measles elimination strategy. This aims to achieve almost 95 percent off coverage with a vaccine made for rubella, that is, measles mumps and rubella vaccine for children of 12 months of age.

Supplementary immunization activity is the implementation of a one-time mass campaign for adults and adolescents, a catch-up campaign started for children of one to 14 years of age, and also periodic follow-up for children less than five years of age.

Composing different strategies showed that the combined vaccine strategy is more effective than other strategies.

Discontinuation of a strategy for vaccines is important sometimes. Based on the theory, Japan introduced a program that could reduce the prevalence of influenza by vaccinating school children. However, after the implementation of the strategy, no significant reduction in the disease was noted. Simultaneously, it was seen that the prevalence of influence in the older age group of the population increased by almost 36 percent. After the discontinuation of the school children vaccination program, there were several deaths in children, particularly in the one to four years of age group. During the program, children were barriers to the spread of the influenza disease in the community.

A strategy was developed to reduce pertussis outbreaks and was recommended to vaccinate pregnant women, adults, and those in close contact with infants. It was challenging to vaccinate all those who were in contact with the infant, and vaccinating adults and adolescents did not give any significant reduction in pertussis. However, the prevalence of pertussis in infants decreased when maternal antibodies were developed during pregnancy. So, it was recommended for all the pregnant women. This strategy was kept being reevaluated.

Conclusion

A well-developed strategy is fundamental to public healthcare success. An efficient vaccination implementation requires careful planning and execution. Monitoring of the health and effects of the vaccine is of prime importance.

Source Article IclonSourcesSource Article Arrow
Dr. Pandian. P
Dr. Pandian. P

General Surgery

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