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In Brief About Management of Heart Attack

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When an artery blockage cuts off blood flow to a portion of the heart muscle, a heart attack occurs, leading to chest pain where hospitalization is necessary.

Medically reviewed by

Dr. Muhammad Zohaib Siddiq

Published At February 29, 2024
Reviewed AtMarch 27, 2024

Introduction

Myocardial infarction, more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disorder that takes place when the heart receives less of its normal supply of blood. This obstruction may have developed due to long-term or progressive injury to the organ. Plaque can begin to form in the arteries of the heart for several reasons, the most prominent of which is the buildup of fat and cholesterol deposits in addition to other substances. The development of a plague can result in the rupturing of an artery, which can lead to a blood clot. In addition, blood clots and blockages can cause damage to or even destroy the heart muscle.

What Are the Causes of Heart Attacks?

When there is a blockage in the blood vessel that supplies blood to the heart, a myocardial infarction, also known as a heart attack, can occur. There are several potential causes for heart attacks, including the following:

  • Atherosclerosis is sometimes known as "artery disease."

  • Hypertension.

  • Tobacco consumption.

  • Lack of physical activity and an unhealthy diet contribute to obesity, diabetes, and elevated cholesterol levels.

  • A history of coronary disease runs in one's family.

  • Inactivity.

  • Anxiety and apprehensiveness.

  • Excessive drinking.

  • Using illegal drugs.

These risk factors can lead to the formation of blockages within the arteries, which can eventually lead to the arteries bursting and causing a heart attack. Exercising control over these risk factors is necessary to forestall heart attacks and preserve optimum health.

What Are the Symptoms of Heart Attack?

Individual differences may exist in the indicators and symptoms of a heart attack. They can be very mild or severe. People with diabetes, older folks, and women are more prone to develop symptoms that are difficult to recognize or uncommon. Adults could have the following symptoms:

  • Alterations in mental condition, particularly in people of advanced age.

  • A discomfort in the chest that can be described as a pressing, squeezing, or full feeling. The discomfort is most frequently felt in the middle of the chest. In addition to the jaw, it could also be felt in the shoulder, arms, back, or stomach. It may continue for more than a few minutes or come and go throughout the day.

  • A chilling sweat.

  • Lightheadedness.

  • Nausea, which affects women more often than males.

  • Indigestion.

  • Vomiting.

  • Numbness, aching, or tingling in the arm (often affecting the left arm, but the right arm may be afflicted on its own or in conjunction with the left).

  • Uneasy and short of breath.

  • Weakness or exhaustion, particularly in people of advanced age and in females.

What Are the Steps to Be Taken During a Heart Attack?

If someone else is having a heart attack, the following is a list of things one should do to help them:

  • Immediately give the operator the code for EMS (emergency medical services). Do not hesitate to call for help because the quicker a heart attack is treated, the better the prognosis.

  • Help the individual find a comfortable seating position and assist them in removing any constricting clothing that they may be wearing.

  • If the person is not allergic to Aspirin, one can give them one of the chewable tablets. It can reduce the risk of blood clots and improve blood flow in beneficial ways to the heart.

  • If the person is unresponsive and not breathing, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation, sometimes known as CPR, as soon as possible. It consists of compressing the chest and performing rescue breathing to maintain oxygen-rich blood supply to the brain and other essential organs.

  • Stay with the individual until assistance arrives and make sure they keep their composure. Reassure them, show them that one supports them, and reassure them they are not alone.

What Is to Be Avoided in the Condition?

There are certain things to avoid doing if someone has a heart attack. If there is no medical professional, the care and support that one can provide during a heart attack will be restricted. While it is necessary to know what actions to take, it is of much greater significance to be aware of what should not be done. When administering first aid to someone who is having a heart attack, it is important to avoid the following, as outlined in the following list:

  • Do not leave the victim to fend for themselves until medical assistance arrives.

  • Do not disregard the warning signs of a heart attack, and do not hesitate to contact emergency help.

  • Do not offer the person any medication, whether prescribed by a doctor or purchased over the counter.

Which Are Different Methods for Preventing Heart Attacks?

Methods for preventing heart attacks are a significant health concern that can have severe consequences. Hence, it is important to implement preventive measures to reduce the likelihood of suffering from a myocardial infarction. Preventing heart attacks is paramount in maintaining a high quality of life and optimal physical well-being. The implementation of the subsequent measures has the potential to reduce the probability of experiencing a myocardial infarction:

  • Cessation of Smoking and Tobacco Usage: The act of smoking and the consumption of tobacco have been found to significantly elevate the risk of experiencing a myocardial infarction. Ceasing tobacco use is a paramount measure in ensuring the protection of one's cardiovascular health.

  • Engage in Regular Physical Activity: Regularly engaging in physical exercise has been demonstrated to decrease the likelihood of suffering a heart attack and enhance cardiovascular health. It is recommended to engage in approximately thirty minutes of physical activity daily.

  • Adopting a Heart-Healthy Diet: Consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and healthy fats can reduce the likelihood of experiencing a heart attack.

  • Weight Reduction: The condition of obesity or excessive weight can elevate the likelihood of experiencing a myocardial infarction. The potential for this risk to diminish can be achieved through weight reduction through dietary modifications and physical activity.

  • Obtain Sufficient Sleep: Maintaining general health, particularly cardiovascular health, requires getting the recommended amount of sleep each night. It is recommended to obtain a sufficient amount of sleep, typically seven to eight hours, on a nightly basis.

  • Avoid Stress: It is imperative to avoid stress as it can increase the likelihood of experiencing a heart attack. One should seek stress-reduction strategies that promote good health, such as engaging in physical activity, practicing meditation, or spending quality time with loved ones.

  • Maintaining a Consistent Healthcare Routine: Regular checkups with a healthcare professional are essential for identifying and managing risk factors associated with heart attacks, such as high blood pressure and cholesterol.

Conclusion

A heart attack is an illness that can be life-threatening and requires emergency medical intervention as soon as it occurs. Some of the most important warning signs are discomfort and tightness in the chest, pain in other parts of the body, and trouble breathing. When therapy is started right away, when someone notices any of the warning signs of a heart attack being displayed by another person, there is typically a good probability that the patient will make a full recovery.

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Dr. Muhammad Zohaib Siddiq
Dr. Muhammad Zohaib Siddiq

Cardiology

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heart attackmanagement of heart attack
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