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Hand Anatomy

Published on May 19, 2022   -  4 min read


The anatomy of a hand provides basic knowledge about its structure and functions. Read the below article to understand the normal anatomy of the hand.



The hand is a complex organ of the body at the end of the forelimb. It is the most flexible part of the skeletal system.The primary function of the hand is to hold and manipulate objects. In addition, they are used for feeling the touch sensation and play a role in sign language.There are two hands; each hand comprises a wrist, palm, backhand, and five fingers. The front or palm side of the hand is called the palmar side, and the back of the hand is called the dorsal side. A hand is composed of different bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, innervating nerves, and blood vessels that help in various movements and dexterity.

What Are the Bones and Joints That Form the Hand?

The hand consists of 27 bones and 27 joints.

What Are the Muscles Present in the Hand?

The muscles of the hand are skeletal muscles. These are connected to the bones and are responsible for movement. The two groups of muscles present in the hand are, extrinsic and intrinsic muscles.

1. Extrinsic Muscles:

Extrinsic muscles are extensors and flexors. They are long muscles located in the forearm and inserted in the hand skeleton, hence the name extrinsic.

2. Intrinsic Muscles:

Intrinsic muscles are thenar, hypothenar, lumbrical, and interossei. They are small muscles located within the hand itself.

What Are the Nerves Present in the Hand?

The nerves of the hand have both motor (carry impulses from the brain to muscles for movement) and sensory functions (carry senses of touch, heat, or pain from the hand to the brain).

The three main nerves of the hand are:

What Are the Blood Vessels Present in the Hand?

The blood vessels travel along with the nerve and supply blood to the hand. The two main arteries of the hand are the radial artery and ulnar artery. The pulse measured in the wrist is at the radial artery. The veins of the hand are called superficial veins since they are close to the skin. The two prominent superficial veins in the hand are cephalic and basilic veins. The lymphatic vessels of the hand drain into the superficial and deep lymphatic systems.


The hand is the visible part of the brain, said Immanuel Kant. The hand is responsible for creative manifestations. The functional capability of the hand relates both to the structural characteristics and the control system of the brain. Hands can be affected by several diseases. Therefore, knowledge about hand anatomy is essential for the systematic assessment of hand disorders or injuries.

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19 May 2022  -  4 min read




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