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Heart Problems

Published on Jul 30, 2019 and last reviewed on May 16, 2022   -  5 min read


Many types of heart problems can affect the heart muscles, heart valves, or blood flow to the heart. Learn about the various types and symptoms of heart problems.

Heart Problems

Problems in the heart can be anything from defects in the blood vessels or the circulatory system, heart rhythm abnormalities, heart muscle abnormalities, and congenital birth defects. Heart problems are the leading cause of death worldwide. In the US, 1 in every 4 deaths is due to heart disease.

What Are the Types of Heart Problems?

  1. Heart diseases involving the blood vessels (atherosclerotic disease):

    1. Coronary artery disease.

    2. Peripheral arterial disease.

    3. Aortic aneurysm.

  2. Cardiomyopathy.

  3. Hypertensive heart disease.

  4. Heart failure.

  5. Pulmonary heart disease.

  6. Cardiac arrhythmias.

  7. Heart infections:

    1. Endocarditis.

    2. Myocarditis.

    3. Pericarditis.

  8. Valvular heart disease.

  9. Congenital heart disease.

  10. Rheumatic heart disease.


CAD is caused by vascular injury caused by the buildup of plaque in the arteries supplying the heart, which is called atherosclerosis. This plaque buildup can partially or completely block the arteries, causing reduced blood flow or stopping the blood flow altogether. This causes the heart muscle supplied by the blocked artery, devoid of oxygen.



PAD usually results in restricted blood flow to the legs and feet, which is caused by the buildup of plaque in the blood vessels.



An aortic aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, which is the largest artery of the body. If left untreated, an aortic aneurysm can grow and rupture.



Cardiomyopathy is a progressive disease that causes the heart muscle to weaken, which makes the heart muscles unable to pump blood to the rest of the body. The different types of cardiomyopathies are:

  1. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).

  2. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  3. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD).

  4. Restrictive cardiomyopathy.

  5. Peripartum cardiomyopathy.

  6. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

  7. Ischemic cardiomyopathy.

  8. Noncompaction or spongiform cardiomyopathy.

  9. Pediatric cardiomyopathy.

  10. Idiopathic cardiomyopathy.



In people with high blood pressure, the heart has to work under increased pressure, which causes heart diseases like heart failure, heart muscle thickening, coronary artery disease, and other heart problems.



Here, the heart is unable to pump an adequate quantity of blood to the body. It can result from other heart conditions or after a heart attack. The types of heart failure are:

  1. Left-sided heart failure.

  2. Right-sided heart failure.

  3. Diastolic heart failure.

  4. Systolic heart failure.



Pulmonary heart disease or cor pulmonale is a heart condition that results from increased blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension), which results in enlargement and failure of the right side of the heart. Here, the arteries in the lungs get blocked or destroyed.



Any irregularity in the heartbeat is called cardiac arrhythmias. Arrhythmias can be caused due to bradycardia, tachycardia, flutter or fibrillation, or premature contraction. It occurs when the electrical impulses to the heart that regulates beating do not function properly. The different types of arrhythmias are:

  1. Atrial fibrillation.

  2. Atrial flutter.

  3. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT).

  4. Ventricular tachycardia.

  5. Ventricular fibrillation.

  6. Long QT syndrome.



Heart infections occur when bacteria or virus or parasite or other chemical reaches the heart muscles and causes inflammation or damage to the heart linings. The types of heart infections are:

  1. Pericarditis - It is the inflammation of the membrane that surrounds the heart.

  2. Endocarditis - Inflammation of the inner lining or heart valve is called endocarditis.

  3. Myocarditis - Inflammation of the heart muscles due to a viral infection or autoimmune response.



Diseases of the heart valves occur when one or more valves of the heart do not function properly. The heart has four main valves, namely mitral, tricuspid, aortic, and pulmonary valves, which help the blood flow in the correct direction in the heart. The problems include:

  1. Regurgitation - Here the valve does not close properly, as a result, blood flows backward.

  2. Stenosis - The valve becomes thick or stiff, causing narrowing of the valve opening.

  3. Atresia - In this condition, the valve is not formed.



Heart abnormalities present at birth are called congenital heart diseases. It can cause defects in either the heart walls or heart valves or blood vessels. The most common congenital heart diseases are:



Rheumatic heart disease is caused when rheumatic fever results in the thickening or stenosis of one or more heart valves.



Last reviewed at:
16 May 2022  -  5 min read




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