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Tuberculosis (TB) - Types, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Tuberculosis (TB) - Types, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Tuberculosis, an infectious disease that occurs due to the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, affects the lungs and other body organs.

Medically reviewed by

Dr. Preetha. J

Published At July 9, 2018
Reviewed AtOctober 5, 2023

What Is Tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis, an infectious disease caused by a bacterium named Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It mostly affects the lungs but can also affect other organs in the body. It can be prevented and treated, but sometimes it can be fatal. The bacteria that cause tuberculosis spreads from one person to another through tiny droplets released into the air during coughs and sneezes.

Before the development of antibiotics and improvements in hygiene, TB was a major cause of death worldwide, more so in underdeveloped and developing countries. But after major improvements in these areas, the number of people infected with this bacteria has drastically reduced. The cases in developed countries began to rise in 1985, which was mainly due to the emergence of HIV infection. As HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) weakens the person's immune system, it leaves the body unable to fight bacteria causing TB.

Antibiotic resistance due to indiscriminate use has made most strains of this bacteria resistant to the most effective antibiotics. Such resistant cases are difficult to treat. Tuberculosis patients are treated with a combination of different antibiotics.

What Are the Types of Tuberculosis?

They are primarily classified as latent or active.

  • Latent Tuberculosis - The bacteria stay in the body in an inactive state and cause no ongoing symptoms but can get reactivated at a later stage causing active symptoms.

  • Active Tuberculosis - The bacteria are active causing symptoms and at this stage, can be contagious (spread to other people).

And depending on the part of the body affected, TB is classified into:

1) Pulmonary Tuberculosis - It is an active type of TB that involves the lungs.

2) Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis - TB that affects any body part apart from the lungs. It includes:

  • TB lymphadenitis - TB involving the lymph nodes, mainly the lymph nodes of the neck. The symptoms include swollen and painful lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, and tiredness.

  • Bone TB - TB that spreads to the bones from the lungs. It causes back pain, bone deformities, swelling, and abscess.

  • Miliary TB - TB that spreads to multiple organs in the body.

  • Liver TB - Otherwise called hepatic TB, and is the type that affects the liver. It can result in fever, jaundice, and liver enlargement.

  • Genitourinary TB - TB that spreads to the genitourinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureter, urethra, and urinary bladder. It is the second most common type. The symptoms include pain during urination, pelvic pain, infertility, and testicular swelling.

  • Gastrointestinal TB - Here, the gastrointestinal tract is affected, which results in symptoms such as stomach pain, weight loss, nausea, and vomiting.

  • TB peritonitis - When the bacteria infects the peritoneum, which is the tissue that lines your abdomen. It can cause nausea, loss of appetite, and vomiting.

  • TB pericarditis - When TB spreads to the tissue that surrounds the heart (pericardium).

  • TB meningitis - When TB spreads to the meninges of the brain. The symptoms are persistent headache, light sensitivity, and neck stiffness.

  • Cutaneous or skin TB - It is a very rare type where the skin gets affected.

What Are the Symptoms of Tuberculosis?

Symptoms may vary:

  • Fever.

  • Night sweat.

  • Cough.

  • Blood-stained phlegm.

  • Pain when coughing.

  • Pain in breathing.

  • Fatigue.

  • Chest pain.

  • Loss of appetite.

How Does It Spread?

It spreads through the air. When a person with active TB infection, coughs, sneezes, talks, or spits, the infected droplets containing the bacteria enter into the air and can get into a healthy person and infect them when they breathe the same air.

Although this sounds scary, it does not spread so easily to all, it takes some time and repeated exposure. For example, someone living in the same house or working at the same office as an infected person is at higher risk.

Risk Factors:

The following factors increase the risk of an individual getting TB:

  • Immunocompromised conditions like HIV(human immunodeficiency virus) or AIDS(Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome), diabetes, chronic kidney disease, cancer, and cancer treatments, immunosuppressant drugs, malnutrition, and very young or old people.

  • Traveling or living in underdeveloped or developing countries.

  • People who have a fixed low income and no access to medical care.

  • Substance use weakens the immune system and makes one susceptible to infections.

  • Healthcare professionals who come in constant contact with infected patients.

  • Working or living in nursing homes, prisons, psychiatric hospitals, and homeless shelters, can make one more vulnerable due to overcrowding.

  • Living with someone who has TB.

How Does a Doctor Diagnose Tuberculosis?

Apart from the initial skin test (Mantoux test), the more accurate tests to diagnose TB are:

  • Blood tests.

  • Chest X-ray.

  • Sputum tests.

  • CT scan (computed tomography), lung biopsy, and bronchoscopy may be ordered if other tests are inconclusive.

What Are the Treatment Options for Tuberculosis?

Special antibiotics are needed to treat TB. The regimen includes three or more drugs in a combination depending on one’s age, symptoms, and general health which include -

  • Isoniazid (INH).

  • Rifampin (RIF).

  • Rifapentine (RPT).

  • Ethambutol.

  • Pyrazinamide.

These drugs have to be taken on a long schedule of four to six months or more as these bacteria are quite resistant and not easy to clear off from the body.

It is important to complete the entire duration of the course as prescribed by the doctor. Many patients discontinue the treatment halfway when they have no more symptoms. But the bacteria would not have been completely eliminated and discontinuation can cause reactivation and relapse.

What Are the Possible Complications of Tuberculosis?

If left untreated, TB can spread and result in the following complications:

  • Back pain and stiffness.

  • Tuberculous arthritis causes joint pain and stiffness.

  • Severe headaches and mental changes when the meninges of the brain get infected.

  • Liver or kidney problems.

  • Impaired functioning of the liver and kidneys.

  • It affects the heart’s ability to pump blood efficiently.


If one has an active TB infection, be sure to wear a special mask until treatment completion to prevent the spread to near and dear ones. Keep away from school or work to minimize exposure to others. Open the windows of the room for better air circulation. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is used to vaccinate infants In countries where tuberculosis is prevalent. It is not effective in adults and thus contraindicated.

Frequently Asked Questions


How dangerous is tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis is a completely curable and preventable bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs. But it needs treatment with antibiotics. If left untreated, the causative bacteria can spread throughout the body in the bloodstream and can be fatal.


Can tuberculosis kill you?

The bacteria that cause TB attacks the lungs and can spread to other body parts if not treated properly. If not treated, one in three people with active TB dies in the first couple of years.


What happens if you have tuberculosis?

When a person gets infected, they experience the following symptoms:
- Sore throat.
- Chills.
- Malaise.
- Loss of appetite.
- Night sweats.
- Chest pain.
- Persistent cough.
- Unintentional weight loss.


How does TB spread?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis enters the body when you breathe in air infected by this bacteria. These bacteria reach your lungs through your respiratory tract and destroy your lung tissue, which makes you cough up bacteria. This results in the bacteria spreading to others through air.


Is TB curable at any stage?

A combination of antituberculosis drugs helps cure tuberculosis at any stage. But, the treatment becomes challenging if the person has drug-resistant tuberculosis, which is why some people die even with treatment.


Is it safe to be around someone with TB?

You can get infected by being around a person with active tuberculosis. When an infected person coughs, talks, sneezes, or sings, bacteria get into the air. This bacteria can enter your body when you breathe and infect your lungs.


How long can you have TB without knowing?

After you are infected with the TB bacteria, it might take weeks, months, or years for you to develop symptoms. The disease generally develops slowly. In some cases, people do not produce any symptoms, even if they are infected. This is called latent tuberculosis.


Can you survive TB without treatment?

No, you cannot survive this infection without treatment. Treatment with drugs such as Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Ethambutol, etc., is needed to cure TB. Some patients with the drug-resistant type of TB might not even make it with treatment.


Can the lungs recover after TB?

Some studies have shown that TB bacteria can be present in the lungs, even if the patient tests negative for TB. Some patients suffer from lung cirrhosis and reduced lung function even after they are completely cured of the infection.


Can ginger cure TB?

Ginger is known to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which might help people suffering from TB. You can boil water with little ginger in it and then drink it. Or you can include little ginger in your food while cooking. Always consult your doctor before taking anything new, and do not stop taking your prescribed medicines, unless suggested by your doctor.
Source Article IclonSourcesSource Article Arrow
Dr. Vasantha. K. S
Dr. Vasantha. K. S



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