Skincare is a process of cleansing skin on a routine basis to remove oil, dirt, sweat, and makeup that gets collected in skin pores throughout the day. Proper skincare ensures that the skin looks naturally glowing and fresh. The cracks and pores in the skin can transmit various organisms, making it prone to infection; good skincare prevents this from happening. Healthy skin can be an indication of good health, as the skin can reflect the overall health of an individual.
How to Start a Skincare Routine for Face?
Basic skincare involves protection, prevention, cleansing, and skin moisturizing to repair the damage caused daily.
Mentioned below are the steps to begin a systematic skincare routine.
1. Cleanser- Choosing the right cleanser type is very important; for oily skin, a water-based, and for dry skin, an oil-based cleanser should be selected. The pH of the cleanser should be weakly acidic.
How to Use- Take a small amount of cleanser and gently rub it on the wet face and neck in circular motions. Massaging in a circular motion helps increase blood flow and stimulates better function. Wash your face with lukewarm water, as it helps in opening pores.
2. Exfoliate Your Skin- Exfoliation means the removal of dead skin cells by gently scrubbing a cream-based exfoliator to make the skin look smooth and bright.
How to Use: Take a small portion on the tip of the finger and gently roll in circular motions on a wet face. Wash it off with cold water, which helps with closing pores.
3. Apply Toner- Toner with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties helps remove extra oil and dirt. It also helps in making the skin tight and smooth.
How to Use: Take a few drops on the fingertips, pat them on a dry face, and do not miss to apply them to the neck. Do not rub the toner, as it could make the face feel sticky.
4. Face Mask Sheet- The sheet mask contains serum and hydrating minerals that make the skin cool, smooth, hydrating, and supple.
How to Use: It can be used once a week. Gently pat the face sheet and leave it for 20 to 30 minutes.
5. Use Under Eye Cream- Apply an under-eye cream to prevent signs of aging and dark spots.
How to Use: Take a drop of the product and apply it to the under-eye area in an outward motion.
6. Moisturizer- For oily skin, use a lightweight, and for dry skin, use a cream-based moisturizer. Applying a moisturizer will help the skin retain moisture and close pores that opened because of cleansing and exfoliation.
How to Use: Take a small amount of cream or lotion and apply it gently to the face in a circular and upward direction.
7. Apply a Cream With SPF- A cream containing SPF (sun protection factor) protects skin from harsh ultraviolet rays, skin damage, and clogged pores.
How to Use: Gently pat the sunscreen cream on the face and neck. Patting helps in better absorption of the product.
What Are the Functions of Skin?
Skin acts as a barrier between the external environment and the internal body parts. It also helps in removing toxins from the body. The major skin function include the following;
Protection against harmful ultraviolet rays and pollution.
Excretion of metabolic toxins and waste products in the form of sweat and oil.
Secretion of sebum and oil to prevent the outer layer of skin from forming cracks, as it could become a medium of infection.
Absorption of vitamin D through sun rays for healthy bones and various other body functions.
Thermoregulating the body temperature to 37 degrees Celsius for proper body functioning.
The production of melanin (a pigment that provides color to the skin).
Sensory perception like touch, pain, and temperatures (hot and cold).
What Factors Can Damage Skin?
There can be various factors that can damage the skin, which is majorly classified as intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors.
Intrinsic factors include natural changes occurring inside the body with growing age. They include skin losing elasticity, texture, and tone resulting in the development of fine lines and wrinkles. Intrinsic factors could be low production of collagen fibers, hyaluronic acid, glycosaminoglycans, and elastin can affect the skin. The overall health of an individual can affect skin health as well.
Extrinsic factors include lifestyle practices that affect the skin. They include ultraviolet rays, chemicals used in makeup, pollution, smoking, sleep, poor daily care routine, and diet, which can make the skin appear pigmented, dull, dry, and wrinkled.
How Much Time Does It Take To Form a New Layer of Skin?
The formation of new skin depends on the production of collagen fibers; as age advances, the production of collagen decreases. On average, it takes 25 to 28 days in young adults, whereas it takes 40 to 60 days in older adults depending on their systemic conditions.
What Products Can Be Used to Improve Skin Texture and Tone?
Maintaining skin tone is important for everyone, so building a daily skincare routine is a must. One must focus on the reasons for their skin damage and try to prevent it.
Following treatment options help in maintaining it better:
Cleansing with a face wash containing salicylic and glycolic acid.
Exfoliators in serum form containing salicylic acid, lactic acid, maleic acid, 10 to 15 % AHA (alpha hydroxy acid), and 2 % BHA (beta hydroxy acid) can be used on a regular basis. For sensitive skin, mandelic acid is a good choice. Some exfoliators in scrubbing cream forms are also available.
Moisturizing the face with cream containing AHA, BHA, and ceramide helps in skin brightening, preventing breakouts, and maintaining even skin tone.
Acne can be prevented by using face wash and creams containing salicylic acid (0.5 % to 5 %), benzoyl peroxide (2.5 to 10 %), and sulfur (3 % to 10 %) is helpful in acne-prone skin. Other anti-inflammatory antibiotics used are Doxycycline, Minocycline, and Tetracycline are only used with a doctor's prescription.
Hyperpigmentation can be prevented by using creams with a composition of kojic acid, AHA, and vitamin C, which help in maintaining a uniform complexion. Retinols, Tretinoin, and Hydroquinone also help in hyperpigmented skin, but these creams containing these drugs are taken with a doctor's prescription.
Blemishes can be regulated by topical cream or lotion containing Niacinamide, Benzoyl peroxide, and retinol helps reduce blemishes.
For sensitive skin, creams containing glycerine and ceramides can be used.
Sunscreen containing SPF 50 to 60 should be preferred to protect against harsh ultraviolet A and B rays.
Aging is a natural process that leads to the breakdown of cells required for the regular functioning of the skin. With cosmetic products, we may camouflage skin defects like wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, acne, and blemishes to a certain extent. But for more stable results, it is always advised to follow a daily skincare routine. Daily skincare also has the efficiency to improve the skin's overall quality.