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Diabetes Mellitus and Oral Health

Published on Dec 27, 2018 and last reviewed on Nov 10, 2021   -  3 min read

Abstract

This article emphasizes the impact of diabetes mellitus on oral health problems and its management.

Diabetes Mellitus and Oral Health

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which affects the uptake and use of glucose by the human body. As a result, the glucose level in the blood rises beyond normal which has an overall impact on the general health and oral cavity.

Types Of Diabetes

  1. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: It occurs due to deficiency of insulin hormone from the pancreatic cells. As a result, the glucose level in the blood rises which is not taken up by the liver cells.
  2. Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: It occurs due to resistance to the action of insulin which can be due to various factors including obesity. As a result, glucose is not taken up by the cells to be utilized as fuel by the body.

Common Symptoms

  1. Polydipsia: Patient feels thirsty.
  2. Polyphagia: Patient feels hungry all the time.
  3. Polyuria: Frequent urination.

Oral Manifestations

There are several oral manifestations of diabetes mellitus. These are:

Complications During Dental Surgery and Tooth Extraction

Management of Diabetic Patient with Oral Problems

When Should One Do Extraction

First, ask the patient for fresh tests like fasting blood glucose level and postprandial level.

Ask the patient for CBC (complete blood count) and CTBT (clotting time and bleeding time) to avoid complications from bleeding.

Before a major surgery, ask the patient to take the consent of an endocrinologist as well.

If these tests are normal, then go for extraction and if these are not normal, send the patient to the endocrinologist for management till investigations return to normal.

Ideally, the dentist should ask the patient to bring fasting blood glucose report and monitor postprandial level before extraction. After extraction, the postprandial test should be repeated after two hours. It is always better to keep the patient on monitoring for two hours after surgery or extraction.

Ideally, it is better and safer to do an extraction after the patient has taken food because one can compromise with hyperglycemia but not with hypoglycemia.

Between fasting glucose level of 110 to 125 mg/dl, one can do the extraction and less than 140 mg/dl after measuring postprandial levels.

If the patient has well-controlled diabetes, oral hypoglycemic drugs can be stopped for 24 hours prior to extraction or minor surgery. But glucose levels need to be monitored pre and postoperatively for two hours until the patient eats again and medication is to be started again.

However, if the disease is poorly controlled, the patient may require insulin before surgery. For such cases, the consent of an endocrinologist must be taken.

As a final note, if you find any diabetic patient, always explain to him/her the preventive measures to maintain good oral health. If you have sufficient technical and manpower support, then go for extraction. But, if you have problems of poor infrastructure, it is always wise to send the patient to an established government or private hospital. If the patient has poor diabetic control, never hesitate in referring the patient to an endocrinologist.

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Last reviewed at:
10 Nov 2021  -  3 min read

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