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Augmentin - Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

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Augmentin - Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

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This combination, Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid, is used to treat various bacterial infections. Read about its uses, dosage, side effects, drug warnings, interactions, precautions, and more.

Medically reviewed by

Dr. Raveendran S R

Published At July 19, 2021
Reviewed AtSeptember 8, 2022

Overview:

Amoxicillin is a Penicillin-type antibiotic that is effective against various bacteria, such as Streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae, Pneumococci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococci (some strains). Amoxicillin, Penicillin, and Ampicillin are all chemically related compounds. This antibiotic inhibits bacteria from multiplying by preventing the formation of their cell membrane. Cell membranes protect bacteria from the harmful environment and help keep the cell content together, without which bacteria cannot survive. The addition of Clavulanic acid is to enhance the effectiveness of Amoxicillin against Amoxicillin-resistant bacteria. Amoxicillin and other antibiotics are only used to treat bacterial infections and not viral infections, such as colds, flu, etc. Augmentin is the most common brand available for Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid combination.

Drug Group:

Amoxicillin belongs to the group of drugs called penicillin-like antibiotics. Nafcillin, Ampicillin, Dicloxacillin, and Piperacillin are some examples of other penicillin-like medicines. All these antibiotics are used in the treatment of various bacterial infections. Clavulanic acid belongs to the class of medications called beta-lactamase inhibitors. They are a family of enzymes that break the beta-lactam ring around resistant bacteria and allow antibiotics to kill them. Examples of other beta-lactamase inhibitors are Tebipenem, Tazobactam, and Sulbactam.

What Is the Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid Combination Used For?

Take antibiotics only if a doctor prescribed it and never self-medicate. If you are not sure that your symptoms are caused by a bacterial infection, do not take any antibiotics. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics will result in the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can be challenging to treat. To prevent this and maintain the effectiveness of Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid, and other antibiotics, only use them to treat infections that have been diagnosed or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid combination can be used for:

  1. Lower respiratory tract infections, such as bronchitis, tuberculosis, pneumonia, etc., are caused by bacteria Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.

  2. Ear infection (otitis media) caused by bacteria Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.

  3. Throat infections, such as tonsillitis and pharyngitis.

  4. Urinary tract infections like kidney (pyelonephritis) and bladder (cystitis) infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Enterobacter species.

  5. Sinusitis, infection of the nose and nasal chambers, caused by Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.

  6. Prostatitis (infection of the prostate gland).

  7. Bone and joint infection.

  8. Skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella species, and Escherichia coli.

  9. Dental infections.

If the susceptibility test shows bacteria to be susceptible to pure Amoxicillin, then it is best to prescribe a tablet containing only Amoxicillin and not in combination with Clavulanic acid.

How Does This Combination Work?

Penicillin and similar antibiotics inhibit the transfer of a peptide group during the transpeptidation process, a process through which the bacterial cell wall is synthesized. Amoxicillin prevents bacteria from building cell walls, which kills them.

When bacteria are resistant to Amoxicillin, they have beta-lactam rings in the core structure, which produces the enzyme beta-lactamase. This enzyme acts on Amoxicillin and makes it ineffective. The addition of Clavulanic acid is for the beta-lactamase inhibitor action. It binds to the beta-lactamase enzyme and inhibits it from metabolizing the antibiotic.

Onset Of Action:

The Amoxicillin and Clavulanic combination start working against bacterial infections within hours of taking it. But, it might take some days for you to start noticing improvements in your symptoms.

Habit-Forming:

There have been no reports of the habit-forming tendency in people taking this combination.

Expiry Date:

Avoid taking this medicine after it expires. Look for the expiry date on the back of the pack.

What Is the Dosage?

The antibiotic dosage will be decided by your doctor based on your age, weight, severity of infection, and other medical conditions. You will first be started on a low dosage, and depending on how your body reacts, the dosage will be modified. The oral tablet form of Augmentin (Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid combination) is available in 200 mg and 28.5 mg, 400 mg and 57 mg, 250 mg and 62.5 mg, 250 mg and 125 mg, 500 mg and 125 mg, 875 mg and 125 mg, and various other strengths.

Adult Dosage:

Adult Dosage

Child Dosage:

Child Dosage

For patients with liver and kidney problems, the dosage needs to be adjusted by your doctor, and regular renal and hepatic functions have to be monitored.

Overdose:

Consuming too much Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid combination pills can result in severe side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, kidney damage, liver damage, and dizziness.

How to Use Augmentin?

Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid combination drugs are available as tablets, chewable tablets, and oral suspension. This combination is usually taken with a meal or a snack every 8 or 12 hours. The chances of missing a dose can be reduced by taking medicine at the same time every day, as it will help you remember. Make sure you follow the directions present on the prescription label or as advised by the doctor or pharmacist. Always take Amoxicillin and all other antibiotics for the prescribed duration. Avoid crushing or chewing tablets unless it is a chewable tablet. Remember to shake the oral suspension liquid well before each use. Do not stop the medicine without completing the course, even if you feel better after taking a couple of doses. The infection can recur, and bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics.

Missed Dose:

If you miss a dose or did not remember to take the drug on time, the drug's effectiveness might reduce or stop working altogether. At all times, a certain level of this drug must be present in your body for it to work well. In case you missed taking a dose, do not double the next dose. Instead, just skip the missed dose and take the next dosage.

What Are the Drug Warnings and Precautions?

Inform your doctor if you have any of the following conditions:

  1. Pregnancy and Breastfeeding - Unless necessary, the use of Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid is not recommended for pregnant and breastfeeding women. The doctor will weigh the potential benefits and the risk involved before prescribing this drug.

  2. Mononucleosis - Mononucleosis, an infection caused by the Epstein Barr virus (EBV), can result in similar symptoms to the cold and flu. If taken by someone who has Mononucleosis, Amoxicillin can result in rashes and bumps on the skin.

  3. Allergic Reaction - If you are already allergic to antibiotics, please inform the doctor, as this combination can also cause moderate to severe allergic reactions.

  4. Liver Problems - This combination should be used with caution in patients with liver disease or impaired liver function. If it is absolutely necessary to take this medicine, then the liver enzyme levels must be monitored at regular intervals.

  5. Diarrhea - Diarrhea is a probable side effect of this combination. Some people might experience mild symptoms, while in elderly and chronically ill patients, this antibiotic can result in a condition called Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea (CDAD), which can be fatal.

  6. Drug Resistance - Never take or prescribe this medicine if there is insufficient proof or suspicion of a bacterial infection. Indiscriminate dosing can increase the risk of bacteria getting drug-resistant.

What Are the Side Effects?

The common side effects of Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid combination are:

  • Diarrhea.

  • Skin rashes.

  • Nausea.

  • Vomiting.

  • Vaginal yeast infection.

  • Dizziness.

  • Skin starts to peel, even inside the mouth.

These symptoms are usually mild and most usually go away in a few days. If it does not, consult a doctor immediately.

The severe side effects include:

  • Liver problems -

    • Abdominal pain.

    • Tiredness or fatigue.

    • Jaundice (yellowish discoloration of the eyes or skin).

  • Clostridium difficile (an acute gastrointestinal infection) -

    • Watery and loose stools.

    • Abdominal cramps.

    • Stomach pain.

    • Nausea and vomiting.

    • Blood in stools.

  • Allergic reaction -

  • Skin rash -

    • Itchy, white or red bumps.

  • Seizures.

  • Unusual bleeding or bruising.

  • Difficulty passing urine.

In children, apart from the side effects listed above, tooth discoloration can also occur. This combination can result in brown or yellow teeth stains.

In case you experience any of these symptoms, call your doctor immediately. Amoxicillin can also result in other side effects that are not listed here, so always consult a doctor if you notice any disturbing symptoms.

What Are the Interactions?

It is natural for all drugs to interact with other drugs, food, and supplements. This interaction can result in certain unwanted side effects. The common interactions of Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid combination are,

1) With Medicines:

  • Doxycycline.

  • Allopurinol.

  • Methotrexate.

  • Warfarin.

  • Oral contraceptives.

  • Live vaccines.

2) With Diseases:

  • Mononucleosis - Patients with a history of Mononucleosis should avoid taking this antibiotic, as it can increase the risk of severe skin rashes.

  • Liver Diseases - This medicine can worsen liver damage in patients with known liver conditions.

3) With Alcohol:

  • Consuming alcohol while on this antibiotic can increase the risk of certain side effects or make them worse.

4) With Lab Tests:

  • Urine Sugar Test - This combination can give a false-positive result if the sugar levels in the urine are tested using Benedict's or Fehling's solution (as they contain copper). Inform the lab so they can use a different reagent.

What Are the Substitutes for Augmentin?

This combination is available in various brand names. The common brand names include:

  1. Acuclav.

  2. Clavam.

  3. Advent.

  4. Asclav.

  5. Bactoclav.

  6. Clavx.

  7. Moxikind-CV.

Please talk to a doctor online if you have any doubts about Augmentin. Avoid self-medication.

Frequently Asked Questions

1.

Is Augmentin Stronger Antibiotic?

Augmentin is a  prescription antibiotic drug which is  used to treat bacterial infections. Augmentin is a penicillin type of antibiotic group. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid are two combinations that are present in Augmentin. Augmentin is more effective against a wider range of bacteria so it is considered as a powerful antibiotic.

2.

Is Augmentin 625 a Power Antibiotic?

Yes ,Augmentin 625 mg is considered as a strong antibiotic because it is similar to penicillin, and helps the body  fight bacterial infections. It is used to treat infections of the ear, nose, sinuses, urinary system, skin, and soft tissue in addition to infections of the lungs (such as pneumonia).

3.

Whether Augmentin an Amoxicillin or Penicillin ?

Augmentin is a penicillin-type of antibiotic group. Augmentin is a combination of drugs containing a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanate, often known as clavulanic acid. Clavulanate is a beta-lactamase inhibitor. It prevents infectious bacteria from producing the enzymes that would otherwise make them more resistant to antibiotics. Augmentin can treat some bacterial strains that might be resistant to conventional antibiotics since it contains clavulanate. This suggests that it might be more effective against a variety of microorganisms.

4.

How Quickly Does the Augment Work?

In just a few hours after taking the medication, Augmentin starts to fight bacterial infections. It is possible that it will take a few days before one starts to feel better. Augmentin works by binding to proteins inside the bacteria cell, and destroying bacteria. This stops the bacteria from forming a cell wall, thus killing the bacteria.

5.

What Should Be Avoid While Taking Augmentin?

While taking antibiotics, some foods, such as grapefruit, calcium-rich meals, and alcohol, must be avoided. Furanocoumarins, which are found in grapefruit, obstruct how the liver and intestines break down medication and detoxify. When taking antibiotics, high calcium doses are also strictly prohibited, it stops antibiotics from being absorbed by binding to it and reducing their effects.

6.

How Many Days Should Augmentin Take?

Age, renal function, and infection severity play an essential role in determining the dosage.. The drug is administered at the beginning of a meal to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal intolerance. When taken at the beginning of a meal,augmentin's absorption is maximised.Without a review, the course of treatment should not be continued for more than 14 days. Children 12 years of age and younger should not use augmentin pills.

7.

Is Taking Augmentin Enough for 5 Days?

Depending on the age, weight, the severity of the infection, and other medical conditions, doctors will determine the appropriate antibiotic dosage. For adults and children 40 kg and more, the recommended dosage is one tablet twice daily or one or two tablets three times daily. Augmentin  should typically not be taken for longer than 14 days without a follow-up with a physician.

8.

What Type Of Bacteria Does Augmentin Treat?

Augmentin is considered as a powerful antibiotic and is used to treat infections of the ear, nose, sinuses, urinary system, skin, and soft tissue in addition to infections of the lungs (such as pneumonia)
- Enterobacter species.
- beta‑lactamase-producing isolates of Haemophilus influenzae.
- Moraxella catarrhalis.
- Escherichia coli.
- Klebsiella species.

9.

Do Augmentin Side Effects Disappear?

It could take a few days or a few weeks for these side effects to disappear. Consult a physician or pharmacist if they become more severe. The side effects of augmentin includes :
- Diarrhea.
- Nausea.
- Skin rash.
- Vaginitis (caused by problems such as yeast infection).
- vomiting.

10.

Does Augmentin Treat Urinary Tract Infection?

The FDA (food and drug administration) has given Augmentin approval to treat urinary tract infection. The Infectious Diseases Society of America states that Augmentin is not a first-choice antibiotic for urinary Tract infection.When other drugs, like Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, cannot be used, this one should be taken instead.

11.

Does Augmentin Make Tired?

Yes,Augmentin makes people feel sleepy or fatigued. But one might feel weak or exhausted if the body is fighting an infection.

12.

Can Augmentin Make Weird?

Yes,When taking augmentin, many people may experience unfavorable side effects such bloating, indigestion, nausea, and vomiting.

13.

Does Augmentin Make Sick?

It is uncommon for augmentin to make people feel sleepy or fatigued. But might feel weak or exhausted if the body is fighting an infection.

14.

Does Augmentin Take After Food?

Augmentin tablets should be ingested right before or with the first bite of food. This is the way to take Augmentin  tablets for optimal results. Additionally, it might aid in avoiding stomach disturbances. Augmentin tablets, though, still function when taken without food.

15.

Does Alcohol Take While Taking Augmentin?

Alcohol use and Augmentin have no known direct interactions. Some medicines trigger alcohol and it can also dehydrate and interfere with sleep, which makes it more difficult for the body to work with the antibiotics to fight off infections. If someone uses alcohol, discuss with a physician how much is safe to consume while taking Augmentin.

16.

What Is Augmentin Used For?

A combination antibiotic drug called Augmentin contains both clavulanate potassium and amoxicillin and is used in treating a wide variety of bacterial infections. 

17.

Is Amoxicillin Clavulanic Acid the Same as Augmentin?

Yes, it is the same medicine, and Augmentin is the brand name of the medicine.

18.

Is Amoxicillin Clavulanate a Strong Antibiotic?

Yes, the Amoxicillin clavulanate is stronger than the clavulanate potassium or Amoxicillin alone. This combination of drugs is more potent in treating certain kinds of infections very effectively.

19.

What Infections Do Augmentin Treat?

Augmentin treats a wide variety of bacterial infections and infections like skin infections, diabetic foot infections, urinary tract infections, and bite wounds in cats, dogs, and humans. 

20.

What Should Be Avoided While Taking Augmentin?

Examples of common drugs that may interact with Augmentin include:
- Anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as Warfarin (may extend bleeding duration). 
- Oral contraceptives (may limit absorption, resulting in decreased efficacy) 
- Probenecid (may increase blood concentrations of Amoxicillin).
- Augmentin may produce a false-positive result for glucose in the urine using copper reduction assays (For example, Benedict's or Fehling's solution) but not enzyme-based tests.
- Note that this list is not exhaustive and only contains common drugs that may interact with Augmentin. Consult the Augmentin prescription instructions for a complete list of drug interactions.

21.

How Long Does It Take for Augmentin to Work for Bacterial Infection?

Peak concentrations of Augmentin typically occur within 1.5 hours. However, observing medical efficacy may take up to 48 hours after dosage.

22.

What Foods Should Be Avoided When Taking Amox-Clav?

Grapefruit, calcium-rich foods, and alcohol are among the foods that should be avoided during antibiotic therapy. Grapefruit includes furanocoumarins, which interfere with the liver and intestines' ability to metabolize medications and filter out toxins.

23.

When Is the Best Time to Take Augmentin?

Augmentin can be taken on an empty stomach or with food. Taking the medication with food may minimize stomach upset and improve drug absorption. Augmentin XR should be taken at the beginning of a meal. This enhances the quantity of medicine absorbed by the body and reduces stomach discomfort.

24.

Does Augmentin Make One Tired?

Augmentin usually does not cause fatigue or drowsiness. However, one will likely experience weakness and fatigue if the body is fighting an illness. Consult the doctor if one is concerned about how exhausted one feels while taking Augmentin.

25.

Can Augmentin Kill Most of the Bacteria?

Yes, Augmentin belongs to the class of penicillin antibiotics. It is referred to as broad-spectrum penicillin. This is due to the fact that it is effective against numerous varieties of bacteria, including some that are generally resistant to penicillin-based medications.

26.

For How Many Days Can Augmentin Be Taken Continuously?

With a doctor's approval, Augmentin should be taken for 14 days at maximum. Short answer.

27.

Can One Take an Augmentin Empty Stomach?

Whether taken with or without food (Rephrase). However, Augmentin is more effectively absorbed when taken with food. Also, if one experiences an upset stomach, taking it with food will be beneficial.

28.

What Should One Eat After Taking Augmentin?

Typically, bland foods are appropriate when taking antibiotics. Good options include unsalted or lightly salted crackers, peanut butter, and non-citrus fruits. The BRAT diet (bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast) can help with antibiotic-induced diarrhea.

29.

Why Is Augmentin So Effective?

Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid are the two components of Augmentin. This combination renders Augmentin more effective against bacterial strains than medications containing amoxicillin alone. Augmentin is effective against infections caused by a wide variety of bacterial species.
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Dr. Raveendran S R
Dr. Raveendran S R

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