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Sexual Health Data Verified

Factors influencing Sexually Transmitted Diseases and its Prevention Strategies

Written by
Dr. Suvash Sahu
and medically reviewed by iCliniq medical review team.

Published on Nov 23, 2016 and last reviewed on Feb 03, 2020   -  2 min read

Abstract

Abstract

Sexually transmitted diseases are a group of communicable diseases that are transmitted predominantly through sexual contact. This article discusses about the consequences, risk factors and prevention of STDs.

Factors influencing Sexually Transmitted Diseases and its Prevention Strategies
Contents

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases are a group of communicable diseases that are transmitted predominantly through sexual contact. The sexually transmitted diseases are caused by bacteria, chlamydia and virus. STDs caused by bacteria include syphilis, chancroid, granuloma inguinale, gonorrhea; by chlamydia include lymphogranuloma venereum and nongonococcal urethritis; and viral infection includes herpes genitalis. venereal warts, and HIV (AIDS).

It is now well known that the presence of STDs increase the rate of transmission of HIV by at least 5 to 10 times. The early diagnosis and treatment can reduce this risk of transmission. But, the best strategy is prevention of STDs, which not only control the spread of HIV, but also reduce the morbidity and the social stigmas associated with it.

Modes of Transmission of Sexually Transmitted Diseases:

Sexual intercourse is the chief mode. Infection of neonates or infants by vertical transmission from mother to fetus and through body fluids such as breast milk.

Consequences and Complications

Factors Influencing Transmission of STD

High Risk Behavior:

It includes having more than one sexual partner, changing sexual partners frequently, having sex with casual partners or prostitutes, varying sexual practices such as anal sex and oral sex, failure to follow safe sex measures such as using condoms, delay in getting treatment for STDs, failure to bring a sexual partner for treatment and not taking prescribed treatment for STDs.

Other Factors:

  1. Gender - More common in women and many are asymptomatic. Risk of transmission of STDs from men to women is much more than from women to men.
  2. Age - Immaturity increases the risk of transmission.
  3. Occupation - More common in persons forced to stay away from their families due to their occupation.
  4. Socioeconomic status - More common in low socioeconomic status.
  5. Circumcision - Decreases the risk of transmission, but offers no protection against STDs.
  6. War - Political instability and insecurity increase the risk of transmission.

Strategies for Prevention of STD

To know more about the preventive measures of sexually transmitted diseases, consult a sexually transmitted diseases specialist online --> https://www.icliniq.com/ask-a-doctor-online/dermatologist/sexually-transmitted-diseases

 

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Frequently Asked Questions


1.

What Are the Types of STD?

The different types of sexually transmitted diseases are:
- Genital shingles (Herpes Simplex).
- Hepatitis B.
- Human papillomavirus (Genital warts).
- Chancroid (Syphilis).
- The clap (Gonorrhea).
- Chlamydia.
- Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
- Trichomoniasis.

2.

What Are the Signs of STD in a Woman?

The common signs of sexually transmitted disease in women are:
- Sores and blisters on the genital region.
- Pain or burning during urination.
- Vaginal discharge that has a foul smell.
- Unusual vaginal bleeding.
- Pain during sex.

3.

What Are the Signs of STD in a Man?

The common signs of sexually transmitted disease in men are:
- Pain or burning during urination.
- Pain during ejaculation.
- Need to urinate more frequently.
- Bumps, sores, or blisters on the penis or genitals.
- Abnormal discharge from the penis, particularly colored or foul-smelling discharge.

4.

Can You Get STD From Kissing?

Yes, it is possible to get sexually transmitted diseases through kisses. The exchange of oral salivary fluids can cause transmission of the infection. Though it is a low-risk behavior, herpes and syphilis are organisms that carry a high risk of infection. It is good to avoid kissing when a partner is sick.

5.

Which STD Is Not Curable?

Infections like gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, and syphilis are sexually transmitted diseases that can be cured with treatment. Diseases like HIV, human papillomavirus, herpes simplex virus and hepatitis B are difficult to treat.

6.

How Can You Check for STD at Home?

It is possible to check sexually transmitted diseases at home. Test kits are available for detecting sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV. It can be identified by a collection of urine samples or blood spot collection by pricking the finger.

7.

How Long Does It Take for STD to Show up?

The time taken for the clear expression of symptoms is known as the incubation period. The incubation period for the sexually transmitted diseases might vary depending on the causative organism. As soon as the person gets exposed to the microorganism, the symptoms do not show up. If a person tests for sexually transmitted diseases, the results of the test might be probably negative. The symptoms might take up to years for showing up in the patient. You should ask your doctor to guide you on this.

8.

Can STD Go Away?

No, certain sexually transmitted diseases cannot be treated completely. The prognosis of a condition depends on the organism's virulence and general health status. If the patient has good immune power, he or she will be able to produce appropriate antibodies to fight against organisms. It is beneficial to get diagnosed faster for receiving proper treatment options.

9.

What Causes STD in Females?

In females, sexually transmitted diseases can be caused due to the following reasons:
- Sexual intercourse without protective measures.
- A tear in the condom would give vaginal infection.
- Multiple sexual partners.
- Bacterial or viral infections.

10.

Does STD Affect Sperm?

A few microorganisms like chlamydia and human papillomavirus are known to affect fertility in men. The transportation of sperm is affected due to the damages happening in the testicular tubes. The production of sperm is affected in a few patients.

11.

How Can You Detect an STD?

Different ways to detect STD are:
- A swab of any discharge or sores.
- Urine sample.
- Blood sample (from a finger prick or a blood draw).
- A swab from the genitals, such as the cervix in girls or urethra in guys.
- A swab of the inside areas of the mouth.

12.

Does STD Smell?

Infections like gonorrhea and chlamydia do not cause any changes in the vaginal odor. Sexually transmitted diseases like trichomoniasis cause changes in vaginal odor. In men, abnormal smells are detected only if there are secretions from the penis.

13.

Can You Get an STD Even if Your Partner Is Clean?

Maintaining good hygiene will reduce the risk of infections. It will not necessarily stop the spread of the infections completely. It is advised to restrain from sexual practices for a while if your partner is diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections.

14.

Can STD Show up Years Later?

One of the biggest challenges of sexually transmitted disease is the identification of symptoms. Some infections can take a long period of time to show its symptoms. Even though the symptoms are not expressed, there are possibilities for the microorganisms to damage the tissues of the body. It is recommended to get diagnosis and treatment as soon as possible to heal in a better way.

15.

Can a Urine Test Detect STD?

A urine test can be used to detect sexually transmitted infections like gonorrhea and chlamydia. A few of them can be detected with blood tests. Some of the sexually transmitted diseases might go unnoticed for a very long time.

16.

Would I Know if I Had an STD?

You can know the presence of sexually transmitted infections by some symptoms like painful urination or a foul smell from your genitals. Most of the patients do not show the symptoms for many years. The expression of symptoms depends on the causative organisms.

17.

What Is the Most Common Treatment for STD?

If a bacterial infection is known to cause sexually transmitted diseases, then antibiotics like Azithromycin and Doxycycline are prescribed. The dosage is recommended for seven days, and it might vary depending on the patient's condition. If the viral infection is known to be the cause, then antiviral drugs are prescribed.

18.

What Antibiotics Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases?

The doctor will prescribe a dosage of Ceftriaxone, along with Azithromycin and Doxycycline. The dosage will be adjusted according to the age and severity of the condition.

19.

Can STD Develop on Their Own?

The sexually transmitted disease cannot occur on their own. These diseases can be transmitted only from an infected patient. This transmission happens through various sexual practices. It is necessary to maintain a considerable distance from the infected individual to prevent the spread of infection.

Last reviewed at:
03 Feb 2020  -  2 min read

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Dr. Suvash Sahu

Dr. Suvash Sahu

MBBS, DNB (DERMATOLOGY,LEPROLOGY& VENEREOLOGY)

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