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Oral Candidiasis - Clinical Presentation, Causes, Treatment, and Prevention

Published on Jun 02, 2019   -  2 min read


This article discusses fungal infection known as oral candidiasis. It is the most common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity.

Oral Candidiasis - Clinical Presentation, Causes, Treatment, and Prevention

Oral candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity, which is observed mostly in patients who have low immunity like HIV, diabetic patients, and those who belong to older age group wearing dentures. Though there are several Candida species, Candida albicans is most commonly associated with it.

Clinical Presentation:

It presents as curd-like, atrophic, speckled, and hyperplastic lesion. Accordingly, there are several types of candidiasis. These are:


There are several causes associated with it, which are:


Clinical examinations followed by investigations are usually done to diagnose this condition. Usually, the scrapping of lesion exposes the erythematous red surface beneath which distinguishes it from leukoplakia. The culture of the lesion shows the presence of fungi. Other investigations like complete blood count, glucose levels, hemoglobin estimation, and various tests for antibodies reveal underlying diseases like diabetes, anemia, leukemia, and autoimmune disorders.


The management requires multipronged strategy depending upon the cause. The various strategies are:


Several preventive measures can be taken to prevent the infection. These are:

  1. Susceptible patients to visit the dentist after two to three months for a general checkup.
  2. Older people to remove dentures for some time, particularly during the night.
  3. Washing dentures after eating.
  4. Complete cessation of smoking in susceptible cases.
  5. Vitamin supplementation by proper diet among older adults, undernourished, and medically compromised patients.
  6. Use of prophylactic mouthwash like Hexidine on the recommendation of a registered dentist to prevent the growth of fungus in high-risk patients.

Remember: "Prevention is always better than cure."


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Last reviewed at:
02 Jun 2019  -  2 min read




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