A mole or nevus is a black or brown spot present in the skin. It is usually round, has a uniform color with smooth edges, and often measures less than 6 mm in diameter. They are often acquired during childhood or adolescence. Most of them will never cause a problem. If new moles arise with age or there is a change in it, there is always a risk of it turning into a melanoma.
Where Does It Appear?
It can occur anywhere in the body, irrespective of if the area is exposed to the sun or not.
Do Moles Have Different Appearances?
Yes, moles have a variety of shapes, and a recurring pattern in a patient constitute 'signature' lesions. Common mole signatures include brown or pink type, fried-egg, eclipse, inverse pattern, targetoid or cockade, shrapnel or ladybug pattern, perifollicular hypo or hyperpigmentation pattern, cheetah phenotype, etc.
What Is ABCDE of Melanoma?
When to Worry?
All the symmetric changes occurring in a mole, such as an increase in size with age, a uniform darkening after sun-exposure or after a chronic trauma, etc., are not signs of malignancy. However, if there is bleeding, ulceration or an increase in number after 50 years of age, then it is a red flag for malignancy.
Who Should Be Tested?
What Does Having a Risk Factor Indicate?
Not all the persons who have multiple risk factors will end up having the disease. It is also possible that melanoma may arise in a person with few or no risk factors. It is significant to know that anyone can get melanoma.
Can Melanoma Be Found at an Early Stage?
Yes, it can be detected at an early stage. If it is done, the success rate of the treatment is very high (99 to 100 %).
How to Do a Skin Self-Examination?
Your eyes and a full-length mirror are all that is required.
When to Approach a Physician?
In patients with a family history or a history of melanoma, if you find any mole which does not fit into the signature lesion category, a mole having an irregular border to a naked eye, is sore or bleeds, it is always better to get examined by a dermatologist using a dermatoscope.
What Are the Tests to Be Done?
Should I Get All the Moles Removed?
No, the doctors will not always remove all the moles, as most of them are harmless. By removing few or all of them, the risk of melanoma development does not decrease, and it is also possible for a melanoma to develop de novo (from the beginning).
What Are the Preventive Measures?
Certain risk factors like age, gender, family history, etc., cannot be prevented. However, the following precautions can be taken.
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