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The coloring of the skin, which is due to the pigment melanin, is called pigmentation. Disorders that change the color of the skin are called pigmentation disorder. Some of the common pigmentation disorders are:
· Nevus of Ota – Bluish or grayish discoloration of the face or the sclera of the eye seen at birth.
· Café-au-lait spots – Brown spots with smooth or irregular borders.
· Nevi – Nevi or moles are skin-colored or brown, flat or raised, and mostly benign spots.
· Albinism – Inherited disorder, which is caused by the absence of melanin, making the hair, skin, and eyes white.
· Melasma – Brown patches seen in the cheeks, forehead, upper lip, chin, and nose, commonly seen during pregnancy.
· Hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation – Increase or decrease in the skin pigmentation due to infection, trauma, or blisters on the skin.
· Vitiligo – It is an autoimmune condition where the immune system attacks the melanocytes (cells that produce melanin), causing loss of melanin pigment.
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